Chapter 10: Reception Analysis
- Reception theory
- An approach that stresses audience interpretation as the primary site of meaning-making.
Classic Audience Studies and Media Effects Research
- Media “injects” people with various beliefs.
- Advertisers advertise, consumers buy.
- “False consciousness”
- Certain individuals are more active in their attention to media and disseminate information to others.
- Audiences follow these “opinion leaders”
- Heavy viewing of media gives individuals a distorted view of the world
Uses and Gratifications
- Individuals consciously consume media for their own ends and purposes.
Encoding/Decoding: Stuart Hall
Codes are never neutral
“The Codes of encoding and decoding may not be perfectly symmetrical.”
- A set of rules that govern the use of visual and linguistic signs within a culture.
- The process of creating a meaningful message according to a particular code.
- The process of using a code to decipher a message and assess meaning.
- dominant reading position: employ a code identical to the industry code and understand the text according to its preferred meaning
- these audiences decode the meaning of the text intended by media producers and consciously or unconsciously accept it as true
- oppositional position: recognize the preferred reading and dominant code in the text but reject them in favor of a completely different code (a different meaning)
- negotiated position: decode part of the text in accordance with the industry code and part of it with an alternative code
- these audiences mesh the preferred reading of the text with their personal perspectives and interpretations and produce meaning that is partially reminiscent of the preferred
Polysemy: John Fiske, Celeste Condit, Leah Ceccarelli
- “semiotic excess” – the greater the semiotic excess, the more interpretations possible
- ”producerly” – an open writerly text that is also popular; it relies on audience members already possessing certain interpretive competencies, which they apply in a self-interested
- The notion that a