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Media Studies
Michael Petit

Terminology PsychoanalyticAnalysis Apparatus Theory • early psychoanalytic approach to film • claims: the actual environment and machinery of the environment of the cinema activate a number of desires within spectators Desire • appetite for something that promises enjoyment, satisfaction, and pleasure in its attainment Fantasy • a mental representation of: conscious or unconscious wish fulfillment Fetishism • the psychic structuring of an object or person as a source of sexual pleasure Imaginary • the pre-linguistic realm where the infant feels whole and connected to everything via the bond to the mother Lack • a psychoanalytic concept that describes the gap separating Imaginary pleasures and lived reality Male Gaze • the cinema's frequent positioning of women as objects coded for strong visual and erotic impact Oedipus Complex • a mental structuring that takes the raw libidinal materials of the oral, anal, and phallic stages and splits them into conscious and unconscious desires Phallocentrism • a social condition in which images or representations of the penis carry connotations of power and dominance Pleasure Principal • the uncontrollable human drive to satisfy desire Reality Principal • the constant curbing of desire according to possibility, law or social convention Repression • the process of mentally containing our desires below conscious recognition or expression Scopophilia • the pleasure that comes from the process of looking Symbolic • the realm or the cultural plane of language, social meanings, and relationships Unconscious • the structure within the psyche (mind) that keeps trying to make its desires felt while remaining continually repressed Voyeurism • the process of experiencing pleasure by watching a desired object or person from a distance FeministAnalysis Essentialism • the belief that cultural distinctions such as masculinity and femininity are inherent, universal, and natural Feminism • a political project that explores the diverse ways men and women are socially empowered or disempowered Gender • culturally constructed differences (tastes / roles / activities) between men and women Glass Ceiling • an invisible barrier sustained by gendered workplace policies • restricts women from being promoted equally to men Patriarchy • a system of social relationships in which women's interests are subordinated to those of men Postfeminism • a conceptual shift within the understanding of feminism • from an emphasis on the systemic oppression of all women to the empowerment of individual women Sex • the innate + biological differentiation (anatomy / reproduction / hormones) between men and women Sexism • discrimination based on a person's biological sex Stereotype • a misleading and reductionist representation of a cultural group QueerAnalysis Discursive Construction • a social construction made invisible, natural, normal and biological by its discursive aspects Gender Performativity • the idea that gender, rather than a coherent component of identity incorporated through socialization, is in fact a bodily performance of discourse that exists only because people believe it is significant Heteronormativity • a system of inequality that perpetuates a binary understanding of heterosexuality and homosexuality in which heterosexuality is privileged Queer Theory • an interdisciplinary perspective that seeks to disrupt socially constructed systems of meaning surrounding human sexuality Representation • the manner in which various social and cultural groups are depicted in the media Sexual Othering • the process of stigmatizing homosexuality / any non-heterosexual practice as abnormal Sexuality • the enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction toward others based upon their gender or sex Visibility • the degree to which various social or cultural groups are present in the media ReceptionAnalysis Code • a set of rules that g
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