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Chapter 1-4

MDSA01 study guide for chapters 1-4

14 Pages

Media Studies
Course Code
Michael Petit

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MDSA01 Study Guide for chapters 1-4 (Focus on key terms for midterm) 1) INTRODUCING critical media studies We learn, 1) somatically: things we know through direct perception; personal experiences 2) symbolically: things we know through someone/something else; textbooks, friend. Via a medium (mediated) WHO are the Mass Media? - Media broadly communication technologies (humans, drawings, telephone) - Mass Media communication technologies that can reach a large audience (remote locations) o collapse space and transcend physical distance PRINT MEDIA - First mass medium; Johannes Gutenberg (movable printing press 1450) - Knowledge could be recorded for future generations; circulation to far cities across Europe - Editors and financial bathing helthd the newspaper industry flourish - Explosive growth in 19 and 20 century, but declined since 1973 (specially 2005) MOTION PICTURE / SOUND RECORDING - Thomas Edison: phonograph 1877 (sound), kinetoscope 1892 (view silent films individually) o Eventual sound+film led to talkies; soundfilm (The Jazz Singer 1927) - Studios golden age 1930s and 40s goal to make the feature film - Record industry took over sheet music industry (cheap technologies to reproduce; magnetic tape 1926, LP records 1948, CDs 1982, MP3s 1995) BROADCAST MEDIA - Media brought to audience through public airwaves; brought ppl out of transportation - Radio came first (exp.1890s, broad. 1920s), television after with Philo T. Fransworth - Commercial broadcasts spread after FCC sorted frequencies (radio 1945, tv 1952) - Satellite radio and cable tv digital signal; part of new media, but not all are included (hard to classify) NEW MEDIA - Lev Manovich: new media are the cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and circulation - Computing technology continuously growing; will it eventually become all media? - Began with the development of the microprocessor/computer chip in 1971 - Internets emails became popular in 1970s, internet was popular in 1990s; hypertext platform LIVING in Postmodernity - Historical epoch that began to emerge in the 1960s; goods-based manufacturing to information- based services - Five key trends of mass media in postmodernity: CONVERGENCE - Tendency of formerly diverse media to share a common, integrated platform - This was a phenomenon to Nicholas Negroponte in the 1980s ; 2 obstacles: o Noise with analog signals (distortion over long distances). ANS: digitization o Bandwidth limitations (slow transmission of large data packets over communication channels) ANS: expanded bandwidth MOBILITY - Powerful microprocessors and wireless technologies media can travel with us anywhere - As technology becomes more portable, medias transformed from home appliances to personal accessories - Future: media will go from something we wear to something we download FRAGMENTATION - Large amount of media content led to niche marketing (de-massification; Alvin Toffler) - Reduced need for standardization (1970); caters to the diverse public - Internet = the most fragmented medium - E.g. amazon has country-specific portals (cookies track preferences) more specifications GLOBALIZATION - Set of social, political, and economic processes of a nation collapse for worldwide social relations - Focus on economic globalization; multinational corporations allow cultural products to be spread to distant markets - Fear of cultural imperialism; forcing one set of cultural values on another; one large culture SIMULATION - Jean Baudrillad: generation by models of real without origin or reality: a hyprreal. - Image went from a good rep of reality, to a distorted rep of external reality, to a mask that conceals the absence of basic reality, to zero reality - Constant reproduction in media = eventually no reference to external reality WHY study media? - Socialization: process where people learn, adopt, and internalize the prevailing cultural beliefs, values, and norms of society - Emphasis on symbols make up most of what we know - societys main storytellers; shapes what we learn, how we learn WHAT WE LEARN - Mediated messages content and form - Content influences what we learn; Content informational component of a message - Content doesnt need to have use-value or truth-value, but contents important because: o Establish which issues are important/unimportant o Lack of diversity of opinions limits public debate o Media content communicated w/ symbols, and convey selective attitudes HOW WE LEARN - Form describes the cognitive component of a message - The way a message is packaged and delivered creates a non-linear way of thinking (image vs. text) KEY critical perspectives - Theory: explanatory and interpretive tool that simultaneously enables and limits our understanding of the particular social product, practice, or process under investigation. (way of seeing) - Best used as a partial explanation
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