Textbook Notes (362,776)
Canada (158,052)
MDSA02H3 (54)
Ted Petit (37)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Thorough Notes

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Ted Petit

4. PragmaticAnalysis Philosophies Metaphysics Truth is transcendent, constant, a universal one Truth is out there waiting to be discovered Truth can never be fully known Mind/Body, Free will/determinism Being & existence Metaphysics: Study of being and existence (ontology) and the world (cosmology) Truth truth is local, contingent, contextual, historical and therefore we need to: Problem solve Assess outcomes/effects Measure and produce tangible results/benefits] Examine and Rationalize consequences Pragmatism Claims that truth depends on the degree to which a concept or theory provides us with useful results in the process of solving problems The truth of an idea or course of action should be based on tangible results and the possible consequences of supporting or disregarding it. As a result, truth becomes a sort of label, a quality that a thing can possess or lack, and it is always dependent on contextual factors Everyday practical affairs Instead of ethereal concepts of being and time, focus on everyday practical affairs: what works, what doesn't work Outcomes Pragmatists William James Focus on the individual; pragmatism as a means of personal growth to achieve ones goals and solve individual problems Amoderation between extremes and addressing personal problems through a Pragmatic Lens as the best way to achieve personal growth Radical empiricism Jamespostulate that "the only things that shall be debatable among philosophers shall be things definable in terms drawn from experience; experience includes both particulars and relations between those particulars, and that therefore both deserve a place in our explanations. Critique of James: Was preoccupied with the state of his and others' souls, not the social conditions of their lives Instead, the Pragmatic focus on larger social issues is primarily the result of John Dewey John Dewey Focus on society and larger social issues.As an educational reformer, he argued against rote memorization and for the development of problem-solving skills in order to make individuals more productive and responsible citizens Educators should instead focus on training students to develop a variety of problem-solving skills in order to make them more productive and responsible citizens of a democratic society Pragmatic Meliorism meliorism is belief that the world can be made better, not through metaphysics, but through dedication to developing material, real-world solutions to improve human life in the world. Richard Rorty Rorty was key in overcoming one of the key criticisms leveled against Pragmatism: relativism Relativism: the belief that diverse approaches and theories related to a given subject are all equally correct. Action becomes difficult in a relativistic lens because there is no consistent truth to act upon Yes, Pragmatists are relativistic when it comes to metaphysical theories, in the sense that all searches for essential truth are equally valid because none of them actually makes any real difference. However, pragmatists restrict relativism to what can be discussed, tested, and selected in the process of problem solving. To effectively do so, one must be aware of ones contingency and ones placement in history. Thus, Pragmatists avoid spinning in relativistic circles by considering and organizing multiple ideas according to their social use Pragmatism allows us to judge the worth of regulation according to the perceived outcomes and effects of the regulation Basically, regulatory policy is true, worthy or good if it clearly benefits American society or helps to concretely correct social problems Government regulation Two concepts provide the standards for evaluation within a Pragmatic approach to media: consequences and contingencies Consequences The clear effects of a given regulation on society at large. Generally, consequences must be beneficial to society if we are to deem the regulation a good one Contingencies The factors a regulation should address as a result of context and situation Generally, a quality regulation must adequately take into account and respond to the socio- historical factors in play during its creation Ex: prior to the invention of the internet, no one dreamed of debating the regulation of virtual or simulated child porn. This historical advent of the web prompted the need for this debate, and the unique opportunities presented by an online medium directed it, the debate was still centered on the consequences of protecting children. The best regulatory solutions are those that have beneficial consequences according to the contingencies of their historical moment The first set of regular contingencies is the tension between free speech (favours deregulation) vs public interest (favours regulation) The two are both for the benefit of society, but can play at odds of eachother. Quality regulation should always consider both, finding a good balance. The second set of regular contingencies is the interplay between government regulation vs media self-regulation These contingencies are based on the social responsibility theory of the press (media is in service of the public, and should be guided by public concern). At times, the media industries have made the conscious decision to regulate themselves in an effort to reduce the scope of government intervention Issues in regulation 6 thematic areas within media regulation that have rich and varied histories First 3 deal primarily with Patterns of media ownership Last 3 concentrate on issues dealing with media content (1) Combating monopoly Limiting the amount of a given market that any one company can own One of the clearest historical examples of anti-monopoly regulation is the Fin-Syn Rules The FCC feared that the three networks (ABC, NBC, CBS) were gaining too much power over competitors so Fin-Syn Rules in 1970 were passed. Prior to Fin-Syn, the 3 were all moving toward a vertically integrated syndication system where they produced and broadcast a great deal of their own programming. However, the newly enacted Fin-Syn Rules limited the amount of broadcasted
More Less

Related notes for MDSA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.