CH 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

CH 5: Theories of Work Motivation Why study Motivation? Due to the need of increased productivity to be globally competitive Need more initiative depends on motivation What is Motivation? Motivation- The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. Basic Characteristics of Motivation Effort strength of the persons work-related behaviour Persistence quantity of work as well as effort Direction quality of work. Working smart as well as working hard. Goalscan be either cause high productivity or low productivity Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Some can be motivated by external environment i.e. supervision or pay Weak definitions and weaker agreement about how to distinguish motivators as either intrinsic/ extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivation- Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied o I.e. Motivators: achievement, challenge, competence, interest Extrinsic Motivation- Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. o I.e. pay, fringe benefits, company policies, supervisions, profit sharing, cash rewards Motivators can have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. Self-determination Theory (SDT): A theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled. o Autonomous Motivation- When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors. o Controlled Motivation- When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward. o Sometimes extrinsic factor can lead to autonomous motivation individual internalized the values/ attitudes associated with a behaviour. o Extrinsic factors might reduce intrinsic value under very limited conditions and are easily avoidable o Key aspect extent to which ones motivation is autonomous vs. controlled o Autonomous motivation effective performance, especially complex tasks. Motivation and Performance Performance- The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization. Factors contributing to individual job performance: o Amount of Effort, Persistence of Effort, Direction of Effort Motivation Personality, General Cognitive Ability, Task Understanding, Emotional Intelligence, Chance Performance General Cognitive Ability- A persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources. I.e. verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities Measured by specific aptitude tests Predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations, including those that involve both manual and mental tasks. Emotional Intelligence- The ability to understand and manage ones own an others feelings and emotions. Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others. High EI able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action. Peter Salovey & John Mayer introduced EI and its model o Hierarchy of steps 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others facial expression is the hardest Most basic level of EI and is needed to perform the rest 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking able to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions and other cognitive processes (i.e. creativity, integrative thinking, inductive reasoning Able to shift ones emotions and generate new emotions that can help one to see things in different ways and from different perspectives 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotionsunderstand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time Understand how different situations and events generate emotions and how they and others are influenced by various emotions. 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit the situation i.e. calm someone down Able to perceive, integrate and assimilate, and be knowledgeable of an understand emotions. EI predicts job and academic performances Most strongly related to job performance in jobs that require high level so emotional labour Importance of EI for job performance depends on ones cognitive ability o Most important for job performance of employees with lower levels of cognitive ability o Less with high level of cognitive ability. The Motivation-Performance Relationship Performance can be low even if highly motivated High motivated but if no luck/ lack knowledge poor performance and vice versa Need Theories of Work Motivation Need Theories- Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance. Needs: physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals. Process Theories: concerned with exactly how various factors motivate people Need and Process Theories are complementary. 3 Need Theories: 1) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow) general theory of human motivation A five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need ahs the greatest motivating potential. A satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator, exception is self-actualization. 1. Physiological Needs I.e. Organizational Factors: minimum pay to survive2. Safety Needs security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and ordered environment. I.e. Organizational Factors: safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, a comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, minimum pay to survive. 3. Belongingness Needs I.e. Organizational Factors: opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork, opportunity to develop new social relationship. 4. Esteem Needs adequacy, competence, independence, strength, confidence, appreciation and recognition Organizational Factors: awards, promotion, job titles, professional recognition 5. Self-actualization Needs desire to develop ones true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express ones skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling Clear perception of reality, accept themselves and others, independent, creative, appreciative Organizational Factors: jobs with potential for creativity and growth, relaxation, permit self-development, personal progression 2) Alderfers ERG Theory By Clayton Alderfer ERG Theory- A three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy. Compression of Maslows model into 3 categories: 1. Existence Needs satisfied by some material substance or condition (physiological
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