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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Chapter 2 Personality and Learning Notes What is Personality? N personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves N an individuals personality summarize s his or her personal style of dealing with the world N personality consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined n a complex way by genetic predisposition and by ones long-term learning history, which is often susceptible to change through adult learning experiences Personality and Organizational Behaviour N initially, it was believed that personality was important factor in many areas of OB, including motivation, attitudes, performance, and leadershipthis became known as dispositional approach because it focuses on individual dispositions and personality N according to the dispositional approach, individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours; in other words, individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways N however, soon researchers began to shift their attention to factors in the work environment that might predict and explain OB N this approach became known as the situational approach; according to which, characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and punishments, influence peoples feelings, attitudes, and behaviour N although researchers argued over which approach was the right one, it is now believed that both approaches are important for predicting and understanding OB, which led to a third approach known as the interactionist approach or interactionism N according to the interactionist approach, OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation; in other words, to predict and understand OB, one must know something about an individuals personality and the setting in which he or she works N this approach is now the most widely accepted perspective within OB N one of most important implications of the interactionist perspective is that some personality characteristics are useful in certain organizational situations; there is no one best personality, and managers need to appreciate advantages of employee diversity N key concept is fit: putting right person in job, group, or firm and exposing different employees to diverse management styles The Five-Factor Model of Personality N the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality dimensions are: o Extraversionthis is the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. Persons who score high tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive. High extraverts enjoy social situations; while those low on this dimension (introverts) avoid them. Extraversion is especially important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction, such as sales and management, where being sociable, assertive, energetic, and ambitious is important for success. o Emotional stability or neuroticismthe degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People with high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are self-confident and have high self-esteem. Those with lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) tend toward self-doubt and depression. They tend to be anxious, hostile, impulsive, depressed, insecure, and more prone to stress. As a result, for almost any job the performance of persons with low emotional stability is likely to suffer. Persons who score high on emotional stability are likely to have more effective interactions with co-workers and customers because they tend to be more calm and secure. o Agreeablenessthe extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. More agreeable people are warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative, and eager to help others. Less agreeable people tend to be cold and aloof. They tend to be more argumentative, inflexible, uncooperative, uncaring, intolerant, and disagreeable. Agreeableness is most likely to contribute to job performances in jobs that require interaction and involve helping, cooperating, and nurturing others, as well as in jobs that involve teamwork and cooperation. o Conscientiousnessthe degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented. More conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated. They are orderly, self-disciplined, hard-working, and achievement-striving, while less conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy, and impulsive. Persons who are high on conscientiousness are likely to perform well on most jobs given their tendency toward hard work and achievement. o Openness to experiencethe extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. More open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people favour the status quo. People who are high on openness to experience are likely to do well in jobs that involve learning and creativity given that they tend to be intellectual, curious, and imaginative and have broad interests. Locus of Control N locus of control a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces N at one end of continuum are high internals, who believe that opportunity to control their behaviour resides within themselves N at the other end of the continuum are high externals, who believe that external forces determine their behaviour N externals see the world as unpredictable, chancy place in which luck, fate, or powerful people control their destinies N internals tend to see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs and the performance level that they achieve N in addition, they perceive to a greater degree than externals that the organization will notice high performance and reward it N since internals believe that their work behaviour will influence the rewards they achieve, they are more likely to be aware of and to take advantage of information that will enable them to perform effectively N research shows that locus of control influences OB in a variety of occupational settings N evidently, because they perceive themselves as being able to control what happens to them, people who are high on internal control are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions N in addition, they seem to perceive less stress, to cope with stress better, and to engage in more careful career planning www.notesolution.com
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