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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

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Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Professor
Julie Mc Carthy
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation Notes What is Motivation? Basic Characteristics of Motivation N motivation the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal N the first aspect is the strength of the persons work-related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job N the second characteristic is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks N effort and persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces; however, the quality is equally important N thus, the third characteristic is the direction of the persons work-related behaviour N in other words, does the worker channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization N thus, motivation means working smart as well as working hard N ultimately, all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation N intrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the direct relationship between worker and task; it is usually self-applied N feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence derived from performing ones job are examples of intrinsic motivators, as is sheer interest in the job itself; off the job, avid participation in sports and hobbies are examples as well N extrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others N pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of extrinsic motivators N obviously, employers cannot package all conceivable motivators as neatly as these definitions suggest N self-determination theory (SDT) theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled N autonomous motivation when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors N controlled motivation when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward N however, sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes the value or attitudes associated with a behaviour and, as a result, no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate himher to perform the behaviour N thus, a key aspect of SDT is the extent to which ones motivation is autonomous versus controlled Motivation and Performance N performance the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization N while motivation clearly contributes, relationship is not one-to-one because a number of other factors also influence performance N two forms of intelligence that are particularly important for performance are general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence N general cognitive ability a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources N it reflects an individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing info, and it includes a number of cognitive abilities, such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities, that are required to perform mental tasks N cognitive ability is usually measured by a number of specific aptitude tests that measure these abilities N emotional intelligence (EI) the ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions N it involves ability to perceive and express, assimilate in thought, understand and reason, and manage in oneself and others N individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action N four-branch model(1) perceiving emotions precisely in self and others; (2) using emotions to help thinking; (3) understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions; and (4) managing emotions so as to attain specific goals N emotional intelligence was the most important for job performance of employees with lower levels of cognitive ability and of les importance for the job performance of employees with high levels of cognitive ability Need Theories of Work Motivation N need theories motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance N needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals satisfy by acquiring incentives or achieving goals N it is the behaviour stimulated by this acquisition process that reveals the motivational character of needs: NEEDS BEHAVIOUR INCENTIVES AND GOALS Maslows Hierarchy of Needs N according to Abraham Maslow, humans have 5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy, beginning with the most basic N these include: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belongingness needs; (4) esteem needs; (5) self-actualization needs 1) Physiological needs. These include the needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such as food, water, oxygen, and shelter. Organizational factors that might satisfy these needs include the minimum pay necessary for survival and working conditions that promote existence. 2) Safety needs. These include needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and ordered environment. Organizational conditions might include safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, a comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, and pay above the minimum needed for survival. www.notesolution.com
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