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MGHB02H3 (268)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 summary

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Page 1 of 8 Questions and Exercises prepared by Alan Saks. I. Social Influence in Organizations People often feel or act differently from how they would as independent operators as a result of social influence. This is because in many social settings, and especially in groups, people are highly dependent on others. This dependence sets the stage for influence to occur. A. Information Dependence and Effect Dependence All of us need information from others and we are frequently highly dependent on others for information about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. Information dependence refers to our reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act. It gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via the signals they send to us. Individuals are also dependent on the effects of their behaviour as determined by the rewards and punishments provided by others. This effect dependence is the reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. It occurs because the group has a vested interest in how individual members think and act, and the member desires the approval of the group. II. Social Influence in Action One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group. A. Motives for Social Conformity Conformity is the tendency for group members to conform to the norms that have been established by the group. There are a number of different motives for conformity. Compliance. Members might conform because of compliance which is the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms. It occurs because a member wishes to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment. As such, it primarily involves effect dependence. Identification. Some individuals conform because they find other supporters of the norm attractive. In this case, the individual identifies with these supporters and sees himself or herself as similar to them. Identification as a motive for conformity is often revealed by an imitation process in which established members serve as models for the behaviour of others. Internalization. Some conformity to norms occurs because individuals have truly and wholly accepted the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. Internalization occurs when individuals have truly and wholly accepted the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. B. The Subtle Power of Compliance In some cases, individuals conform to norms which they do not support. Much of this occurs because of social pressures and the desire to please others. But compliance often sets the stage for the more complete involvement with organizational norms and roles implicit in the stages of identification and internalization. www.notesolution.com
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