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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 12

chapter 12 summary

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Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Page 1 of 8 Questions and Exercises prepared by Alan Saks. I. What Is Power? Power is the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence. This does not necessarily imply that a poor relationship exists between the power holder and the target, as most friendships involve reciprocal influence processes. Power can flow in any direction in an organization, although members at higher levels typically have more power. Power is a broad concept that applies to individuals as well as to groups. II. The Bases of Individual Power Power can be found in the position that you occupy in the organization or the resources that you are able to command. Legitimate power is dependent on ones position or job.The other bases (reward, coercion, referent, and expert power) involve the control of important resources. A. Legitimate Power Legitimate power derives from a persons position or jobin the organization. It constitutes the organizations judgment about who isformally permitted to influence whom, and it is often called authority. As we move up the organizations hierarchy, we find that members possess more and more legitimate power. Legitimate power works because people have been socialized to accept its influence. Even across various cultures, employees cite legitimate power as a major reason for following their bosss directions. B. Reward Power Reward power exists when the power holder can exert influence by providing positive outcomes and preventing negative outcomes. It corresponds to the concept of positive reinforcement. It is often used to back up legitimate power. C. Coercive Power Coercive power is available when the power holder can exert influence by the use of punishment and threat. Although it too is employed as a support for legitimate power, its use by managers is generally ineffective and can provoke employee resistance. D. Referent Power Referent power exists when the power holder is well liked by others. It is potent because it stems from identification with the power holder and represents a truer or deeper base of power than reward or coercion. Second, anyone in the organization may possess referent power. E. Expert Power Expert power is derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization. This power can be obtained by lower-level organizational members and is especially likely to exist for those members in scientific and technical areas. Of all the bases of power, expertise is most consistently associated with emplo yee effectiveness. Employees perceive women managers as more likely than male www.notesolution.com
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