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Chapter 5

MGTB23 Chapter 5 Study Guide

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Management (MGH)
Hugh Mac Donald

CHAPTER 5 I. Why Study Motivation? Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour and it has become more important in contemporary organizations as a result of the need for increased productivity to be globally competitive and the rapid changes that organizations are undergoing. II. What is Motivation? When we speak about motivation we usually mean that a person works hard, keeps at his or her work, and directs his or her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes. A. Basic Characteristics of Motivation Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. The four basic characteristics of motivation are effort, persistence, direction, and goals. Effort. This refers to the strength of a persons work-related behaviour. Persistence. This refers to the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks. Direction. This refers to the quality of a persons work related behaviour. Goals. This refers to the ends towards which employees direct their effort. B. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Experts in organizational behaviour distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and it is usually self- applied. Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and it is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated. The extrinsicintrinsic motivation relationship suggests that if intrinsic outcomes and extrinsic outcomes are both highly attractive, they should contribute to motivation in an additive fashion. In general, research has shown that both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards are necessary to enhance motivation in actual work settings. C. Motivation and Performance Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization. Although there is a positive relationship between motivation and performance, the relationship is not one-to-one because other factors such as personality, general cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, task understanding, and chance can intervene. General Cognitive Ability. General cognitive ability refers to a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources. General cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations. It is an even better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of more cognitive skills. Emotional Intelligence. Emotional intelligence (EI) has to do with an individuals ability to understand and manage his or her own and others feelings and emotions. Peter Salovey and John Mayer have developed an EI model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills or branches. The four skills represent sequential steps that form a hierarchy. Beginning from the first and most basic level, the four branches are: Perception of emotions, integration and assimilation of emotions, knowledge and understanding of emotions, and management of emotions. EI has been found to predict performance in a number of areas including work performance and academic performance. It is most likely to predict performance in jobs that involve a lot of social interaction and require high levels of emotional intelligence. www.notesolution.com
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