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MGHB02H3 (268)
Chapter 3

ch.3 for MGTB23

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Samantha Montes

WHAT IS PERCEPTION? Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment People base their actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides, rather than on reality itself Perceptions that influence organizational behaviour are the perceptions that organizational members have to each other COMPONENTS OF PERCEPTION Perception has three components Each of the three components influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target The Perceiver Their needs, experience, and emotions can affect their perception of a target Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations that affect perceptions Needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive Emotions can influence our perceptions, as in a innocent comment from a person that gets us angry Perceptual Defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The Target Ambiguous targets are susceptible to interpretation and the addition of the meaning of the perception Providing more information about the target does not always improve perceptual accuracy The Situation The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target Perception of the target changes with the situation SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY According to Social Identity Theory, people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories o Our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity Personal Identity: is based on our unique personal characteristics Social Identity: is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups www.notesolution.com o We also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories We define members of a category relative to members of other categories Social Identity Theory helps us understand how the components of the perceptual system operate in the formation of perceptions o We perceive people in terms of attributes and characteristics that we associate with their social category relative to other categories A MODEL OF THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS According to Bruner, when the perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it o In this unfamiliar state, the perceiver really needs information on which to base perceptions of the target and will actively seek out cues to resolve this Bruners model demonstrates three important characteristics of the perceptual process o Perception is Selective Perceivers do not use all available cues o Perception constancy Refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations o Perceptual Consistency Refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target BASIC BIASES IN PERSON PERCEPTION Primacy and Recency Effects Primacy Effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions o Often has lasting impact o Form of selectivity o Illustrate the operation of constancy Recency Effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Reliance on Central Traits Early cues do not always receive equal weight Central Traits are personal characteristics of a target that are of particular interest to a perceiver o people tend to organize their traits around them o centrality of traits depends on the perceivers interests and the situation o often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others example: physical appearance Implicit Personality Theories www.notesolution.com Implicit Personality Theories are personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together o Provide a basis of misunderstanding Projection People often assume that others are like themselves Projection is the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others o Can lead to perceptual difficulties o Can serve as a form of perceptual defence Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them o Examples: race, age, gender, ethnic background, social class, occupation, etc Three aspects to stereotyping o We distinguish some category of people o We assume that individuals in this category have certain traits o We perceive that everyone in this category possess these traits Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets, and we are usually pretty familiar with people in our own groups Not all stereotypes are inaccurate o However, most are i
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