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Chapter 7

MGTB29 Chapter 7, 8, 13.docM

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Management (MGH)
Course Code
Brian Connelly

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Chapter 7 Groups and Teams What is a group Group: 2 or more people interacting independently to achieve a common goal - interaction is most basic part of a group - interdependence is group members rely to some degree on each other to complete goal - a social mechanism where we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviour - provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Formal work groups: groups established in orgz to facilitate the achievement of orgz goals - hierarchy of most orgz is series of formal interlocked work groups - task force are temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve par- ticular problems - committees are usually permanent work groups that handle recurrent assignments out- side the usual work groups structure Informal groups: emerge naturally in response to the common interests of the orgz members - seldom sanctioned by org - member cuts across from formal groups - hurt or help org depending on the norm of their behaviour Group Development stages of the group development Forming - testing the waters - what are we doing here, what are others like, what is our purpose - situation often ambiguous - aware of dependency on each other Storming - conflict often emerges - confrontation and criticism - sort out roles and responsibilities - problems often happen earlier than later when developing a group Norming - solve problem, develop social consensus - compromise - interdependence is recognized - info and opinions flow freely Performing - group devotes energy toward task accomplishment - achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance Adjourning - some groups disperse after achieving goal - corporate layoffs, downsizing - members exhibit emotional support for each other - have parties or ceremonies - stage model good tool to troubleshoot and monitor how groups are developing - does not apply to all groups - mainly groups where people have never met each other before - some org setting are structured so that storming and norming not necessary for strangers to smooth into team Punctuated Equilibrium - when groups have a specific deadline the development stages of group is different from the typical stages Phase 1 - first meeting continues to midpoint - critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the rest of phase 1 - assumptions, approaches and precedents dominate first half of groups life - gathers info and hold meeting but does not make progress toward goal Midpoint Transaction - halfway point to groups deadline - marks a change in groups approach - how group manage change is critical for the group to show progress - need to move forward, seek outside advice Phase 2 - decisions adopted in midpoint will be played out in the rest of phase 2 - concluded with a final meeting that reveals burst of activity and concern for how out- siders will evaluate the product Advice from PE - prepare first meeting carefully, stress motivation and excitement - do not look for radical progress in phase 1 - manage midpoint carefully, evaluate strength and weakness of ideas people gave in phase 1, focus on strategy to be used in phase 2 - be sure there is adequate resources - resist deadline change Group Structure and Consequences Group structure: the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group (the way the group is put together) Group size - most groups 3-20 people - larger groups more view points, more conflict and dissension - more opportunities for friendship, but chance to work and develop this opp might de- crease because it takes a lot of time and effort - in larger groups its hard for people to take credit for what they have done - to determine the best size of the group depends on the task and how we define good performance Additive tasks - predict potential performance by adding performance of individual group members to- gether - potential performance of the group increase with size - for example building a house Disjunctive task - performance dependent on performance of the best group member - for example, need to figure out a specific problem in a research, needs one really smart person to do it - bigger group higher chance of having at least one really smart person Process Loss - performance difficulties from problems motivating and coordinating large groups - problems with communication and decision making - actual performance= potential performance-process loss Conjunctive tasks - performance limited by its poorest performer - bigger group means higher chance of having a weak link in the group - for example a bad teacher causes rest of students to be bad as well Diversity of Group members - strong impact on interaction patterns - more diverse group have more difficulty communicating and becoming cohesive - diverse take longer to form, storm, and norm - diverse group perform better when its a creative demanding task and problem solving - surface diversity wears off (gender, race, age) - deep diversity (attitudes) can damage cohesiveness Group Norms Norms: collective expectations that members of the social unit have regarding the be- haviour of each other norm development - norms form to provide regularity and predictability - provide psychological security - regulate behaviours that are important to their supporters - example, manager have norms about employees being on time and attendance level - shared attitudes forms a norm - collectively held expectations, 2 or more people typical norms dress norms - norm that dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work reward allocation norms - equity; inputs, efforts, performance, seniority - equality - reciprocity; reward people the way they reward you - social responsibility performance norms - performance is a function of social expectations, as well as personal motivation, inher- ent ability, or technology Roles: positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them - represent package of norms that apply to particular group member - group members engage in similar behaviour, but needs to act differently - for example, in a group meeting some one is secretary or chairperson - designated/ assigned roles (same thing) - assigned roles are prescribed by org, means to divide labour and facilitate tasks - emergent roles develop naturally to meet social or emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment role ambiguity - lack of clarity of job goals or methods - lack of how performance in evaluated, achieved, what are limits of someones authority - role senders are managers, they develop role expectations, sends roles to focal people - can cause job dissatisfaction, stress, reduce commitment, lower performance, want to quit - focal people are employees how this model leads to ambiguity - organizational factors, middle manager fail to give big picture top managers want, and middle managers fail to supervise lower managers - role sender have unclear expectations of focal people - focal person not full digest the expectations of their roles Role Conflict: person face with incompatible role expectations - intrasender role conflict; manager tells employee to take it easy, but gives them a bunch of work that needs immediate attention - intersender role conflict: two or more role senders differ in expectations for role occu- pant, example employee is in between the customer or org - interrole conflict; several roles held by one person involve incompatible expectations - person-role conflict; role demands behaviour incompatible with personality and skill of person, whistle-blowing are signals of person role conflict - same consequences as role ambiguity - reduce conflict if managers don’t send self contradictory msgs, confirm with other role senders, sensitive to multiple role demand, fit right person to job Status: rank, social position or prestige accorded to group members formal status systems - management identify people with higher status - use of tangible status symbols; title, pay, schedule, environment - seniority, ones job can determine status - org usually tie status symbol to assigned roles - status makes people want to aim higher - reinforces authority, people pay attention to high status people informal SS - not well advertised - lack symbols, or systematic support - can link to job performance though, but also race and gender consequence of status differences - people like to talk to people of higher status or equal not below - higher status people have more influence, but it doesn’t mean they are always right reducing status barriers - foster team work and cooperation across ranks - get rid of obvious status symbols - email reduces barriers in communication, encourages low status to contact high status people Group cohesiveness: the degree to which a group is especially attractive to its members - people want to stay in group, and say good things about it factors influencing cohesiveness - threat and competition; people work more united when facing a threat, friendly compe- tition with another group promote cohesiveness; because group feels they need to im- prove communication and coordination to fend off threat or to win - success; group become more attractive to its members if its a successful group, failure can decrease cohesiveness - member diversity; if group in agreement how to accomplish task, they will e cohesive - size; larger group harder to be cohesive, smaller groups easier to be cohesive - toughness of initiation: groups harder to get in are more attractive to its members consequence of cohesiveness - more participation; members like each other, want to remain in group - more conformity; members more engaged in activities to keep group cohesive, com- municate with deviant members more - more success - cohesive groups are especially effective in accomplishing their own goals - group more cohesive when everyone accepts goals of org - high cohesive groups, productivity of members similar to each other, low coh have more variability - high coh groups is either more or less productive than low coh groups - coh pays off more when tasks require more interdependence Social Loafing: tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task - a motivation problem - people in groups often feel trapped in a social dilemma - more in North American cultures - free rider effect; lower effort to get a free ride through other members - sucker effect; lower effort because they feel other people are free riding counteract social loafing - make individual performance more visible; smaller groups - work is interesting - increase feeling of indispensability; use training, and status symbols - increase performance feedback - reward group performance What is a team? - group becomes a team when there is a strong sense of shared commitment, and a lot of synergy - usually describe groups in org setting - improvement in org performance due to team based work agreements - Collective efficacy; shared belief that a team can successfully perform a task Designing effective work teams - physical or intellectual output is acceptable to management and other parts of org that uses its output - members needs satisfied - members experience allows group to continue working together self managed work teams - provide members with opp to do challenging work with reduced supervision - autonomous, semi-autonomous, and self-directed - group regulate own members behaviours task for smwt - complex and challenging - SMWT have to have something useful to self manage, complex task capitalize on the diverse knowledge and skills of groups composition of SMWT - stability; need high coh and interaction, rotating new members reduces that - size; small as is feasible, keep social loafing and coordination problems a min - expertise; group as whole should be very knowledgable about the task, need social skills to talk things out and resolve conflict - diversity; should have enough similar people to work well together, but enough diversi- ty to bring different ideas - let group choose its own members, but potential problem is criterion might be unfair - fit is important supporting SMWT - training - technical training - social skills - language - business training - rewards; tie to team accomplishment provide members with individual feedback, (gain sharing, profit sharing, skill based pay) - management; encourage groups to observe, evaluate, and reinforce own task behav- iours Cross functional teams - bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or de- liver a product or service - maybe a SMWT if task is recurrent, not complex - need leadership if its unique and complex - members have to be experts in their own field - goals are innovation, speed, and quality CF teams effective because - composition; all specialties are represented by a member of the team - superordinate goals; attractive outcomes only achieved by collab - physical proximity; team members are located close to each other - autonomy; need autonomy from larger org, specialist needs authority to commit their functions to project decision - rules and procedures; prevent anarchy - leadership; leaders need strong people skills, and task expertise shared mental models; team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is - can greatly contribute to effective team performance - challenging to instill in a CF team Virtual Teams - work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and org boundaries - often CF in nature - asynchronous; email, fax - synchronous; chat, groupware advantage of VT - around the clock work - reduced time travel and cost - larger talent pool challenges in VT - trust; its difficult for members in VT to develop trust with each other - miscommunication - isolation; people have needs for companionship - high costs; cutting edge tech is expensive - management issues; hard to asses individual performance if you cant see them overcome challenges - training, once a year team building helps develop trust - reduce stereotyping, discrimination, cliques, personality conflicts lessons concerning VT - recruitment; choose people who will be excited about VT, and okay with isolation, inter- personal skills too - training; train for both interpersonal and technical skills - personalization; encourage team member to get to know each other - goals and ground rules; set goals and communication standards clearly sometimes.... - teams aren’t always a good thing - managers want team more than employees, managers want greater org return - many org rushed to have teams with little planning - puts pressure and responsibilities on workers Chapter 8 Social influence and org processes Info dependence and effect dependence - rely on others for info about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings - information dependence; reliance on others for information about how we feel, think and, act - allows others to influence through signals they send - individuals motivated to compare their own thoughts and feelings with others - effect dependence; reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment - effects of their behaviour are determined by rewards and punishment provided by others - involves 2 processes - 1, group has invested interest in how a member think and act because it can af- fect the goal - 2, the member desire approval of group - plenty of effects to keep members under the influence - managers give raises or promotions or good or bad tasks - informal people would give praises, friendship, helping hand Social influence in Action - most obvious consequence of info and effect dependence is when people conform to social norms that have been established by the group motives for social conformity - compliance; prompted by desire to acquire rewards and avoid punishment, effect de- pendence, isn’t actually them - identification; prompt by perception people who promote the norm are attractive and similar to themselves, information dependence, imitation process - internalization; true acceptance of belief, value, and attitude of norm, Subtle power of compliance - a compliant individual is necessarily doing something that is contrary to the way he or she thinks or feels - is dissonant, and arouse tension - to relieve tension either be isolated/ a scapegoat or come to actually accept the norms beliefs Organization Socialization - socialization; process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behviours that are necessary to function in a group or org - the way org communicate the orgs culture and value to new members - socialization methods leads to proximal outcomes leads to distal/long term outcomes - new comers need to learn the task, behaviours and expectation of their role, norms of their work group, and about the org - objective is for new comer to achieve a good fit - Person job fit - person org fit - influenced by socialization process, and related to job behaviours and attitudes - proximal outcomes - org identification; the extent to which an individual defines him or herself in te
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