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Canada (161,608)
MGHB02H3 (269)
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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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Management (MGH)
Ted Mock

Lecture NotesChapter FourValuesValuesbroad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over othersThey are general and do not predict behavior in specific situations very wellMay be categorized into intellectual economic aesthetic social political and religious valuesMembers of the same occupation espouse similar valuesThis is partly explained because people choose occupations that correspond with their values and partly because of the norms that one adapts from being part of a groupValues across CulturesWork Centralityhow is important is work as a part of lifeIt differs across culturesJapan is rated number 1 where work is central to a persons lifeThe US is in the middle of the pack and Great Britain is low on that scaleVariations in length of vacation time occur across cultures and this is likely related to work centralityItaly is tops in amount of vacation and not surprisingly Japan is low as is US High work centrality is related to low amount of vacation timeGeert Hofstede studyhe observed differences between culture by surveying 116000 IBM employees in 40 different countriesHe established the following differences that are related to culturePower distancethe extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of powerThese are the perceptions of those who hold power as well as those who do not hold power oLow power distancelittle perceived inequality bosses are accessible powerdifferences are downplayedDenmark New Zealand Israel AustriaCanada and US would be considered relatively low power distanceoHigh power distancehighest are Philippines Venezuela MexicoUncertainty Avoidancepeople are uncomfortable with uncertain or ambiguous situationsoStrong uncertainty avoidancethese cultures stress rules and regulations hard work conformity and securityJapan Greece and Portugal are high on this factoroLow uncertainty avoidancerisk taking is valued there is less concern for rules hard work is not seen as a virtueSingapore Denmark and Sweden are low on this factor Canada and US are below averageMasculineFemininea masculine society has clearly differentiated gender roles that support the dominance of men and stress economic outcomesA feminine society has fluid gender roles sexual equality and emphasis on quality of lifeoMasculine most masculine is Japan followed by Austria Mexico and Venezuela The US is on the masculine side of this scaleoFeminineScandinavianCanada is midwayneither strongly masculine nor feminineIndividualismCollectivismoA high individualism society stresses independence individual initiative and privacyUS Australia Britain Canada
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