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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

LEC 9 SOCIAL INFLUENCE, SOCIALIZATION, AND CULTURE Social influence in Organizations -in many social settings, and especially in groups, ppl are highly dependent on others Information Dependence -reliance on others for info about how to think, feels, and act -info dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via the signals they send to us -the effects of social info can be very strong, often exerting as much or more influence over others as objective reality Effect Dependence -reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment -the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act -group members desire the approval of the group The tendency for group members to conform to social norms that have been established by the group Motives for Social Conformity 1. Compliance 2. Identification 3. Internalization Compliance  Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  Compliance is the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms  It primarily involves effect dependence Identification  Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Info dependence is especially important  An imitation process is involved in which established members serve as models for the behavior of others Internalization  Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm  Conformity occurs because it is seen as right  Conformity is due to internal, rather than external forces Subtle Power of Compliance -simple compliance can set the stage for more complete involvement with organizational norms and roles Organizational socialization -socialization is the process by which ppl by which ppl learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors that are necessary to function in a group organization -it is a learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge, change their attitudes, and perform new behaviors -it is the primary means by which organizations communicate the organization’s culture and values to new members -socialization methods influence immediate or proximal outcomes which lead to more distal or longer- term outcomes -leaning during socialization involves 4 main content area or domains of learning: task, role, work groups, and organization -an important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit Person-job (P-J) fit refers to the match b/w an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job Person-organization (P-O) fit refers to the match b/w an employee’s person values and the values of an organization Organizational Identification -an important distal outcome of socialization is organizational identification -the extent to which an individual defines oneself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent -it reflects an individual’s learning and acceptance of an organization’s culture Unrealistic expectations -ppl entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high -when they enter an organization they experience a reality shock and their expectations are not met -newcomers who have higher expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival and lower intentions to quit -unrealistic expectations are a result of occupational stereotypes, the media, and recruiters who paint rosy pictures to attract job candidates to the organization Psychological contract -beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises b/w them and their organization -an employee might expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and loyalty Psychological contract breach -employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the psychological contract -common occurrence and is related to affective reactions, work attitudes, and work behaviors -might results in negative emotions that stem from feelings of violation and mistrust toward mgmt Reasons:  Recruiter promises  Newcomer info and perceptions  Organizational changes Organizations need to ensure that truthful and accurate info about promises and obligations is communicated to new members -less likely to occur where socialization is intense Methods of socialization  Realistic job previews  Employee orientation programs  Socialization tactics  Mentoring Realistic job previews -the provision of a balanced realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of the job to job applicants -they provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory socialization stage -the realistic job preview process can be compared to the traditional preview process that often sets expectations too high by ignoring the negative aspects of the job Realistic job previews: research evidence -they are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance -turnover reduction is due in part to lower expectations and increased job satisfaction -they cause those not cut out for the job or who have low P-J and P-O fit perceptions to withdraw from the application process, a process known as self-selection Employee orientation programs -designed to introduce new employees to their job, the ppl they will be working with, and the organization -they also teach newcomers how to cope w/ stressful work situations -a realistic orientation program for entry stress (ROPES) teaches newcomers how to use cognitive and behavioral coping techniques to manage workplace stressors Employee orientation programs: research evidence -can have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviors of new hires -employees who attend orientation are more socialized in terms of their knowledge and understanding of the organization and report higher organizational commitment -decrease turnover Socialization tactics -the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another Collectives vs. Formal vs. Sequential Fixed vs. individual tactics informal vs. variable random Collective Individual Formal Informal Sequential Random Fixed Variable A number of new Socialization Segregating Do not There is a There is There is a There is no members are experiences newcomers distinguish a clear and an time table time frame to socialized that are from regular newcomer fixed ambiguo for the indicate when together as a tailor-made organizational from more sequence us or newcomers’ the group, going for each new members and
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