Chap 1. Organizational Behavior and Management
1) What are organizations?
i) Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effect.
ii) Social inventions:
1. Essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people
2. OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively.
iii) Goal accomplishment:
1. OB is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change.
iv) Group effort:
1. Organizations pdepend on interaction and coordination among people to
accomplish their goals.
2. OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork.
2) What is organizational behavior?
i) Organizational behavior refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in
ii) OB provide insight about effectively managing and changing them
iii) OB studies how organizations can be structured more effectively and how events in their
external environments affect organizations.
3) Why study organizational behavior?
i) Organizational behavior is interesting
ii) OB is important
iii) OB makes a difference
1. OB sustains competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness is
increasingly related to the management of human capital and OB.
2. Management practices and organizational behavior not only influence
employee attitudes and behaviors, but also have an effect on an
4) Goals of OB
i) Predicting OB
1. Being able to predict OB does not guarantee that we can explain the
reasons for the behavior and develop an effective strategy to manage it.
ii) Explaining OB
1. OB is especially interested in determining why people are more or less
motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign.
iii) Managing organizational behavior:
1. Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in
5) Early prescriptions concerning management
i) The classical view and bureaucracy 1. Classical viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated
high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized decision
2. Each department was to tend to its own affairs, with centralized decision
making from upper management providing coordination
3. Scientific management: Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to
determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of
4. Bureaucracy: max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict
chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power,
and selection and promotion based on technical competence.
ii) The human relations movement and a critique of bureaucracy
1. Hawthorne studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western
Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how
psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment.
2. Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and
bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more
participative and oriented toward employee needs.
3. Critique of bureaucracy:
I. Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth
II. Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to
take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level
III. Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum
acceptable level of performance that the rules specify.
IV. Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall
goals of the organization.
6) Contemporary management -- the contingency approach
i) Contemporary scholars recognize the merits of classical approach and the human relations
1. The classical advocates critical role of control and coordination in getting
organizations to achieve their goals.
2. The human relationsitst pointed out the dangers of certain forms of control
and coordination and addressed the need for flexibility and adaptability.
ii) Contemporary scholars have learned t