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Chapter 1

Chap 1.docx

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Management (MGH)
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Chap 1. Organizational Behavior and Management 1) What are organizations? i) Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effect. ii) Social inventions: 1. Essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people 2. OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. iii) Goal accomplishment: 1. OB is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change. iv) Group effort: 1. Organizations pdepend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals. 2. OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork. 2) What is organizational behavior? i) Organizational behavior refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. ii) OB provide insight about effectively managing and changing them iii) OB studies how organizations can be structured more effectively and how events in their external environments affect organizations. 3) Why study organizational behavior? i) Organizational behavior is interesting ii) OB is important iii) OB makes a difference 1. OB sustains competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness is increasingly related to the management of human capital and OB. 2. Management practices and organizational behavior not only influence employee attitudes and behaviors, but also have an effect on an organization’s effectiveness. 4) Goals of OB i) Predicting OB 1. Being able to predict OB does not guarantee that we can explain the reasons for the behavior and develop an effective strategy to manage it. ii) Explaining OB 1. OB is especially interested in determining why people are more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign. iii) Managing organizational behavior: 1. Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations. 5) Early prescriptions concerning management i) The classical view and bureaucracy 1. Classical viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making 2. Each department was to tend to its own affairs, with centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination 3. Scientific management: Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. 4. Bureaucracy: max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. ii) The human relations movement and a critique of bureaucracy 1. Hawthorne studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment. 2. Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs. 3. Critique of bureaucracy: I. Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement II. Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level members. III. Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specify. IV. Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization. 6) Contemporary management -- the contingency approach i) Contemporary scholars recognize the merits of classical approach and the human relations approach. 1. The classical advocates critical role of control and coordination in getting organizations to achieve their goals. 2. The human relationsitst pointed out the dangers of certain forms of control and coordination and addressed the need for flexibility and adaptability. ii) Contemporary scholars have learned t
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