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MGHB02H3 (269)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 2

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Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 2: Personality and Learning Personality: psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment Dispositional Approach – individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviour Situational Approach – reward and punishment influence people’s feeling, attitudes, and behaviour Interactionist Approach – to predict and understand OB when an individual’s personality is known Five-Factor Model of Personality:  Extraversion – Sociable, Talkative VS Withdrawn, Shy  Emotional Stability – Stable, Confident VS Depressed, Anxious  Agreeableness – Tolerant, Cooperative VS Cold, Rude  Conscientiousness – Dependable, Responsible VS Careless, Impulsive  Openness to Experience – Curious, Original VS Dull, Unimaginative - Lead to better job performance - Related to retention and attendance at work - Antidote for counterproductive behaviour (theft, absenteeism, disciplinary problems) - Related to work innovation, job satisfaction, job search, career success Locus of Control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces Self monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  Gravitates toward jobs that require role playing and self-presentation Self-Esteem: the degree which a person has a positive self-evaluation  Related to the plasticity of their thoughts, attitudes, behaviour  Behavioural Plasticity Theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem  Participation in decision making, autonomy, and interesting work Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour  Positive affectivity – cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, sociable, energetic  Negative affectivity – negative emotions and mood (distressed, depressed, unhappy)  Related to the level of job satisfaction and performance  Proactive behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones  Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment  General self-efficacy: a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Core Self-evaluation: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth MGTB27 Learning: relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience  Practical Skills – job specific skills, knowledge, technical competence  Intrapersonal Skills – problem solving, critical thinking, learning about alternate work process, risk market  Interpersonal Skills – interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution  Cultural Awareness – learning social norms Operant Learning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strength behaviour Positive Reinforcement: the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour Negative Reinforcement: the removal or a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement  Confusing Rewards with Reinforces o Rewards should made contingent on some desired behaviour such as attendance, innovation, productivity  Neglecting Diversity in Preferences for Reinforcers
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