Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
MGHB02H3 (268)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity Perception: the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment Components of Perception 1. Perceiver (experience, motivational state, emotional state) o Develop expectations through experience o Needs case us to perceive what we wish to perceive o Experience of misperceiving the innocent comment o Perceptual Defence: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions 2. Target that is perceived o Interpretation and addition of meaning to the target o Ambiguous target 3. Situational context of the perception is occurring o Situation can add information about the target o Perception of the target changes with the situation Social Identity Theory A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories Personal Identity: based on personal characteristics; interest, ability, traits Social Identity: based on social groups, genders, nationality, occupation Also form perceptions of other based on their membership in social categories - Social identities are relational and comparative - Perceive people in terms of attributes and characteristics A Model of the Perceptual Process  Created by Jerome Bruner 1. Unfamiliar target encountered 2. Openness to target cues 3. Familiar cues encountered 4. Target categorized 5. Cue selectivity 6. Categorization strengthened  Perception is selective  Perception is efficient and hinder our perceptual accuracy  Perceptual constancy refers to tendency for target to be perceived the same way in different situations  Perceptual consistency refers to tendency to select, ignore, distort cues MGTB27 Bias in Person Perception  Primary and Recency Effect o Primary effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions o Recency effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions  Reliance on Central Traits o personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver o Physical appearance comes before social competence, qualifications, potential job success o Taller and more attractive people are more likely to be paid more  Implicit Personality Theories o personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together o Hardworking = honest o Average intelligence = friendly  Projection o tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others o Efficient and sensible perceptual strategy o People with similar backgrounds or interests often do think and feel similarly  Stereotype o the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them  Distinguish some category of people  Assume individuals in the category has certain traits  Perceive everyone in this category possesses these traits o Languages, occupations o Factors that reinforce inaccurate stereotypes  Process info quickly and efficiently  Selective perception and selective application of language Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives  Attribution: the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour  Disposal Attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect  Situational attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment  3 implicit guide if attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes o Consistency cues  Reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time  High consistency leads to dispositional attributions o Consensus cues  Reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others  Suggest place emphasis on people’s private actions than on their public actions when assessing their motives o Distinctive cues  Reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations When a behaviour is highly distinctive, in that it occurs in only one situation, we are likely to assume that some aspect of the situation caused the behaviour. MGTB27 Consistency Consensus Distinctive Likely Attribution High Low Low Disposition High High High Situation Low High Low Temporary Situation Biases in Attribution  Fundamental Attribution Error o The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations o Discount the effect of social roles on behaviour o Constant situation that reduce appreciation of certain behaviour  Actor-Observer Effect o The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour
More Less

Related notes for MGHB02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.