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MGHB02H3 (268)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  Related to preference  Everyone holds the different values Stereotypes about generations:  Traditionalist – respectful of authority and high work ethics  Boomers – optimistic workaholics  Generation X – cynical, confident, pragmatic  Generation Y (Millennial) – condiment, social demanding of feedback, somewhat unfocused Cultural Differences in Values  Work Centrality o Work was a central life interest tended to work more hors o Japan – highest work centrality o Variation in vacation time across culture  Hofstede’s Study o Power distance: the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members o Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain an ambiguous situations  Strong uncertainty avoidance – rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, security o Masculinity/ Femininity  Masculine culture – dominance of men, stress economic performance, differentiate gender roles  Feminine cultures – fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, stress quality of life o Individualism/ Collectivism  Individualism: independence, individual initiative, privacy  Collective: interdependence and loyalty to family or clan o Long-term/Short-time Orientation  Long term – persistence, perseverance, thrift, close attention to status differences  Short term – personal steadiness, stability, face-saving, social niceties o Most countries fall under large power distance and low individualism/ small power distance with high individualism Implications of Cultural Variations  Exporting OB Theories o Answers to OB studies might differ o Different values to power distance and individualism  Importing OB Theories o Quality circle, total quality management, just-in-time production o Different reactions to continuous improvement and the heavy reliance on employee  Appreciating Global Customers o Understanding the needs and tastes of customers around of the world o Firms have profited from increasing understand of ethnic diversity  Developing Global Employees o Employees must appreciation of differences in cultural values o Implications of differences for behaviour MGTB27 Attitudes: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people “tendency to respond” – attitudes influence behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group Belief +Value  Attitude  Behaviour  Attitudes are not always consistent with behaviour  Attitudes provide useful information over and above reactions  Behaviour is most likely to correspond to attitudes when people have direct experience with the target of attitude  Product of belief and value Job Satisfaction: a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs  Facet Satisfaction: the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job o Ex: “I love my work by hate my boss” o Relevant attitudes toward jobs are contained in a rather small group of facets  Overall Satisfaction: an overall or summer indicator of person’s attitude toward his or her job that cuts across that various facet o Average or total of the attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of the job  Two measures: Job Descriptive Index & Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire What Determines Job Satisfactions?  Discrepancy o Related to beliefs and values o Differ in perceptions concerning the actual nature of the job o Individuals might differ in what they want from the jobs o Discrepancy Theory: job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained  Fairness o Distributive fairness: fairness that occurs when people receive that outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs  Distribution of work rewards and resources  Equity Theory: My Outcomes = Other’s Outcome My Inputs = Other’s Inputs  Inputs: anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization exchange for outcomes  Outcomes: factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs  Inequity is a dissatisfying state o Procedural Fairness: fairness that occurs when the process sued to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable  Related to how outcomes are decided and allocated  Performance evaluation, pay raises, promotions, layoffs, work assignments  Consistent
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