Textbook Notes (363,041)
Canada (158,169)
MGHB02H3 (268)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation Motivation: extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal  Effort  Persistence  Direction  Goals Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic: direction relationship between the worker and the tasks (self-applied)  Ex: feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence, participations in hobbies Extrinsic: work environment external to the tasks (applied by others)  Ex: pay, fringe benefits, company politics, supervisions Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled  Intrinsic factors  autonomous motivation  Extrinsic rewardscontrolled motivation Extrinsic depends on performance  motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases Extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individuals feel less competent and less in control of own behaviour Some individuals see extrinsic rewards as symbols of success and signals of what to do the achieve in the future  increase task performance Motivation and Performance Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization Factors Contributing to Individuals Job Performance  General Cognitive Ability o A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources o Overall capacity and efficiency for processing information o Measured by a number of specific aptitudes tests to measure abilities o Predicts learning and training success and job performance (manual and mental tasks)  Emotional Intelligence o Ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions o Ability perceive, express, assimilate, understand, reason, manage emotions o For problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and actions o Model: 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals o Most important for employees with lower levels of cognitive ability and of less importance for employees with high levels of cognitive ability MGTB27 Needs Theories of Work Motivation Need Theories (What): specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy the needs in a way that contributes to performance Needs  Behaviour  Incentives and Goals Process Theories (How): concerned with exactly how various factors motivate people Maslow’s Hierarch of Needs  5-levels hierarchy need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest level unsatisfied nee has the greatest motivating potential 1. Physiological needs (basic necessities) 2. Safety needs 3. Belongingness needs 4. Esteem needs 5. Self actualization needs A satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator. Alderfer’s ERG Theories ERG Theory: 3-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence needs 2. Relatedness needs 3. Growth needs  As lower-level needs are satisfied, the desire to have higher level needs satisfied will increase  The least concrete needs (growth needs) become more compelling and more desired as they are fulfilled  Some might seek relatedness or growth before existence needs  Radical departure  The more lower level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired  The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs  A non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation Needs for achievement (n Ach): desire to perform challenging tasks well  A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes  A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks  A desire for performance feedback High n Ach  better performance intrinsically satisfying Need for affiliation (n Aff): desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships High in n Aff  social networking and communicate frequently  belongingness or relatedness need Need for Power (n Pow): desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression High in n Pow  influential  high profile  advocate risky positions  self esteem need MGTB27 Managerial Implications of Need Theories  Appreciate Diversity o Managers must evaluate the needs of individual employees and offering incentives or goals that correspond to their needs o Need satisfaction are bounded  reduce the effectiveness of chosen motivational strategies  Appreciate Intrinsic Motivation o Expression of some creative and innovative behaviour on the part of members o Frustration of higher-order needs prompts demands for greater satisfaction of lower-order needs o Vicious motivational cycle – gratify lower level needs are easier o Expect more and more extrinsic factors in exchange for their services o Cycle of deprivation, regression, and temporary gratification Process Theories of Work Motivation Process Theory: specify the details of how motivation occurs Expectancy Theory: a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job  Outcomes  Instrumentally – the first level outcome followed by second level outcome o performance  outcome  Valence – expected value of outcomes o The valence of a particular first level outcomeinstrumentalities x second-level valences  Expectancy – probability of first level outcome can be achieved o effort  performance  Force – effort directed toward a first level outcome o Force = first level valence x expectancy No matter how valent a particular first-level outcome might be, a person will not be motivated to achieve it if the expectancy of accomplishment approaches zero  People will be mo
More Less

Related notes for MGHB02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.