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MGHB02H3 (268)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 7: Groups and Teamwork Group: 2 or more people interacting to achieve a goal Formal Work Groups: established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals  Task force – temporary  Committees – permanent Informal Groups: emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Typical Stages of Group Development  Forming  Storming  Norming  Performing  Adjourning - Good tool for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups develop - Well acquainted task force and committees are shortcuts Punctuated Equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium model: describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions  Phase 1: first meeting and set agenda; little progress; stress motivation and excitement  Midpoint : change in group approach; seek advice; might need new approach; strategy  Phase 2: final meeting; evaluation Group Structure Characteristics of the stable social organization of a group  Group Size o Time and energy required o Less satisfaction with bigger group o Performance depend on task and definition of good performance o Additive task: sum of performance of all members o Disjunctive task: depend on the best member o Conjunctive task: limited by the poorest performer o Process losses: difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups o Actual performance = potential performance – process losses o Additive and disjunctive  larger groups better o Conjunctive  small groups better  Diversity of group membership o Difficult time communicating  become cohesive o Take longer to form, storm, norm o More and less diverse group are equality cohesive and productive o Age, gender, race MGTB27  Group norms o Norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other o Consistency provides important psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption o Regulate behaviour o Share attitudes form the basis for norms o Collectively held expectations o Typical norms:  Dress norms  Reward allocation norms  Performance norms  Roles o Position in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them o Act differently o Assigned roles – diving labour and responsibilities to facilitate task achievement o Emergent roles o Roles ambiguity: lack of clarity of job goals or method  Organizational factors  The role sender  The focal person o Role conflict: condition of being faced with incompatible role expectations  Intra-sender role conflict – single  Inter-sender role conflict – two or more  Inter-role conflict – several roles held by one person  Person-role conflict – role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant  Status o Rank, social position, prestige accorded to group members o Formal status systems  Application of status symbols  Induce members to aspire to higher organization  Reinforce authority hierarchy in work groups and organization  Pay attention to high status individuals o Informal status system  Related to race or gender o Consequences of Status Differences  Paradoxical effect on communication patterns  Communicate with same or high status
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