Textbook Notes (363,452)
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MGHB02H3 (268)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 8: Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Social Influence  Information dependence: reliance on others for information o Influence over others as objective reality  Effect dependence: effects of behaviour determined by rewards and punishment Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance: promoted by desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment o Involves effect dependence  Identification: promoted by perceptions of norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Internalization: promoted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, attitudes underlie the norm o Internal forces The Subtle Power of Compliance  Compliant individual – doing something contrary to the way he thinks/feels  Cease conformity  Required great variance with one’s value or moral standards  Complete identification and involvement with organizational norms and roles Organizational Socialization  Socialization: people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization  Methods: o Realistic job previews o Mentoring o Employee orientation programs o Proactive tactics o Socialization tactics  Learning about the task, role, group, organization  Person-job fit: the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job  Person-organization fit: match between employee’s personal values and the values of an organization  Organizational identification: individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent Stages of Socialization  Anticipatory Socialization o Formal process of skill and attitude acquisition (college, university) o Informal process of summer jobs or through media o Not all accurate and use for new members  Encounter o Orientation programs o Getting to know and understand the style and personality of boss and coworkers o Complied with critical organizational norms and identify with experienced organizational members  Role management o Conformity to group norms, modify the role to better serve the organization o Connections outside the immediate work group MGTB27 Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract  Unrealistic Expectations o High expectation and inaccurate o Perceptions were less favourable than expectations o Newcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, job survival and lower intentions to leave  Psychological contract o Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises o Psychological contract breach: employee perceptions that organization has failed to fulfil its promises or obligations o Negative effect on job attitudes and behaviour because of negative emotions from feeling of violation and mistrust toward management o Downsizing/ restructuring  break promises; unable or unwilling to keep o Incongruence and psychological contract breach is less likely where socialization is intense Methods of Organizational Socialization  Realistic job previews o Realistic picture of the positive and negative aspect of a job to applicants o Incorporate positive and negative aspects of the job into booklets or video for applicants o Reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance o Self selection: cut out for the job or who have low P-J and P-O fit perceptions to withdraw from the application process  Employee Orientation Programs o Introduce new employees to job, co-workers, organization o Conveying and forming psychological contact and to teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations o Higher commitment o 69% remain in the company after 3 years  Socialization Tactics o Organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another o Collective VS Individual  Group – same experience, same challenge  Individual – experiences tailor made for each new member; on the job training o Formal VS Informal  Formal – segregating newcomers from regular members; provide formal learning experience  Informal – no separation from experienced members; on the job learning o Sequential VS Random  Sequential – clear, fixed steps  Random – ambiguous, changing sequence o Fixed VS Variable  Fixed – time table  Variable – no time frame o Serial VS Disjunctive
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