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MGHB02H3 (269)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 13

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Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 Chapter 13: Conflict and Stress Interpersonal conflict: when one person, group or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another Causes of Organizational Conflict  Group identification and intergroup bias o Work group attendance record is superior than occupation o Based on personal character tics, job function, job level  Interdependence o Accomplish individuals’ own goal o Necessitates interactions between the parties to coordinate with their interest o Interdependence implies that each party has some power over the other  Differences in power, status, and culture o Power – treat supervisors with hostility o Status – reversal of usual lines of influence o Culture – clash in beliefs and values  Ambiguity o Ambiguous goals, jurisdictions, performance criteria  Scarce resources o Limited budget money, secretarial support, lab space Types of Conflict  Relationship conflict  Task conflict  Process conflict Conflict Dynamics  Winning  Conceal info from each other or pass on  Each side become more cohesive  No contact with opposite party  One’s position is boosted when opposite part is negatively stereotyped  Aggressive people who are skilled in engaging in conflicts  leaders Modes of Managing Conflict  Avoiding o Low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party  Accommodating o One cooperates with the other party while not asserting one’s own interest  Competing o Max assertiveness and min cooperation  Compromise o Combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation o Not useful for resolving conflicts that stem from power asymmetry  Collaborating o Max both assertiveness and cooperation MGTB27 Negotiation  Decision making process among interdependent parties who don’t share identical preferences  Distributive negotiation : win-lose ; fixed amount asset to be divided  Integrative negotiation: win-win; enlarge the asset to be divided Distributive Negotiation Tactics  Threats and promises o Threat – punish; posed in a civil and subtle way; power over the other party o Promises – reward; lack of power; anticipates future negotiation  Firmness VS Concessions o Reciprocated by the other party  increase deadlock  Persuasion o Verbal or debate o Expert, liable, unbiased o Ex. Salary negotiation Integrative Negotiation Tactics  Copious information exchange o Attacking other party’ position and trying to persuade them of the correctness of yours o Build trust o Ask question and listen to responses  Framing differences as opportunities o Differ in their preferences  Cutting costs o If cut cost  change of integrative settlement increase o Integrative solutions attractive when reduce costs for all parties in a dispute  Increasing resources o Combined parties  excess resources  Introducing super-ordinate goals o Attractive outcomes that can be achieved only by collaboration Third Party Involvement  Mediation o Aids the process or atmosphere of negotiation o Clarity their underlying interest o Intervene content of negotiation  Arbitration o Conventional arbitration – choose any outcome o Final offer arbitration – final offer, arbitrator choose one Conflict CONFLICT  CHANGE  ADAPTATION  SURVIVAL  Promote changes to monitor other’s performance  Difficult to hide errors and problem from the rest of the organization  Signal for redistribution of power  Conflict stimulation: increasing conflict to motivate change  Denying differences, ignoring controversy, exaggerating points of agreement  Cause of conflict can be manipulated by managers MGTB27 Model of Stress  Stressors: environmental events or conditions that have potential to induce stress  Stress: psychological reaction to demands inherent in a stressor that has a potential to make a person feel tense or anxious  Stress reaction: behavioural, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress  Personality and Stress o Locus of control: control by internal or external
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