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MGHB02H3 (268)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Xuefeng Liu

Ch.3 Perception, attribution and diversity Perception - The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment - It helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses.  keyword of this definition is interpreting Components of perception - It has 3 components  perceiver, a target that is being perceived and some situational context in which the perception is occurring  The perceiver  The perceiver’s experience, needs and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target  Past experience lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and they affect current perceptions  Our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive  if we are hungry, we tend to “see” more edible things in ambiguous pictures  Emotions such as anger, happiness, or hear, can influence our perceptions  Perceptual defense the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions  The target  Perception involved interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition  The situation  Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives  It can add information to the target Social identity theory - Atheory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and membership in social categories - We tend to answer “who are you” with our social categories such as student, accountants, etc - Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics (interest) - Our social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (gender, nationality, occupation) - Social identity theory helps us understand how the components of perceptual system operate in the formation of perceptions Amodel of the perceptual process Bruner’s model 1. Unfamiliar target encountered 2. Openness to target cues 3. Familiar cues encountered 4. Target categorized 5. Cue selectivity 6. Categorization strengthened - Perception is selective we don’t use all the cues - Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situation - Perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target Basic biases in person perception - Primacy and recency effect  Primacy effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impression  Recency effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impression - Reliance on central traits  Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver  Physical appearance is a common central trait in work settings that is related to a variety of job-related outcomes - Implicit personality theories  Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together  Ex, expect hardworking people to be honest - Projection  The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others - Stereotyping  The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them  Three specific aspects to stereotyping are:  We distinguish some category of people  We assume the individuals in this category have certain traits  We perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits Attribution: perceiving causes and motives - Attribution  the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behavior - Dispositional attributions explanation for behavior based on an actor’s personality or intellect - Situational attributions explanation for behavior based on an actor’s external situation or environment  Consistency cues  Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behavior over time  Consensus cues  Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behavior compares with that of others  Acts that deviate from social expectations provide us with more information about the actor’s motives than conforming behaviors do  Distinctiveness cues  Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behavior across a variety of situations
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