Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 5.docx

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Management (MGH)
Pascal Riendeau

Organizational Behaviour – Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation Motivation • Motivation – The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal • The first aspect of motivation is the strength of the person’s work related behaviour or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job • The second characteristic is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks • The third characteristic is the direction of the person’s work-related behaviour • All motivated behaviour has some goal/objective Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination Theory • Intrinsic Motivation – Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and is usually self-applied. Eg. Accomplishment/challenges are intrinsic motivators • Extrinsic Motivation – Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. Eg. Pay/Company policies/Supervision are extrinsic motivators • Self-Determination Theory – A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled • Autonomous Motivation – When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors • Controlled Motivation – When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward Motivation and Performance • Performance – The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization • Two forms of intelligence that are important for performance are: general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence • General Cognitive Ability – A person’s basic info processing capacities and cognitive resources Eg. Numerical and spatial abilities • Emotional Intelligence – The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions • The four branch model of emotional intelligence includes: Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others -> Using emotions to facilitate thinking -> Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions -> Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals • Performance can be low even when a person is highly motivated • Some individuals have some luck or chance factor that could harm/boost performance Need Theories of Work Motivation • Need Theories – Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contribute to performance • NEEDS -> BEHAVIOUR -> INCENTIVES AND GOALS • Needs theories are concerned with what motivates workers whereas process theories are concerned with exactly how various factors motivate people Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Psychological Needs -> Safety Needs -> Social Needs -> Esteem Needs -> Self- Actualization Needs • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential • Maslow implies that a satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator because the individual moves on to the next level Alderfer’s ERG Theory • ERG Theory – 3 level need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy • Existence Needs – Needs that are satisfied by some material substance/condition. These match with Maslow’s physiological needs and safety needs. • Relatedness Needs – Needs that are satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. These match with Maslow’s social needs and esteem needs that involve feedback from others. • Growth Needs – Needs that are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting. They involve the full utilization of one’s skills and abilities and the creative development of new skills and abilities. This corresponds to Maslow’s self-actualization and the aspects of his esteem needs that concern achievement and responsibility. • Alderfer believed that when more concrete needs are satisfied, energy can be directed toward satisfying less concrete needs • An apparently satisfied need can act as a motivator by substituting for an unsatisfied need • Thus the more lower level needs that are gratified, the more high level need satisfaction is desired • The less higher level needs are gratified, the more lower level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs • McClelland’s Theory of Needs – Outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation • Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of one’s society • The three needs that McClelland studied most are needs for achievement, affiliation, and power • Individuals who are high in need for achievement exhibit the following characteristics: A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes, a tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks, and a desire for performance feedback. • These people do things because they are intrinsically satisfying -> self- actualization • Need for Affiliation – A strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships, prefers to avoid conflict -> belongingness need • Need for Power – A strong desire to influence others, making significant impact or impression -> self-esteem need • McClelland predicts that people will be motivated to seek out and perform well in jobs that matc
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