Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 8.docx

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Management (MGH)
Pascal Riendeau

Organizational Behaviour – Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture Social Influence in Organizations Information Dependence and Effect Dependence • Information Dependence – Reliance on others for info about how to think, feel, and act • Social Information Processing Theory – Information from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours • Effect Dependence – Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment • Effect dependence involves two processes: the group has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group and the members frequently desire the approval of the group • Rewards include promotions, raises, assigned tasks as well as friendship and praise • Punishments include nagging, harassment, name calling, or social isolation The Social Influence Process and Conformity • The consequence of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group • There are three difference motives for social conformity: compliance, identification, and internalization • Compliance – Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment • Identification – Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself • Internalization – Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm Organizational Socialization • Socialization – The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization • One of the goals of socialization is to provide new hires with information and knowledge about their role to avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity • An important objective of socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit • There are two kinds of fit that are important for socialization: Person-job fit and person-organization fit • Person-Job Fit – The match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of the job • Person-Organization Fit – The match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization • The two fits are a proximal outcome, while organizational identification is distal • Organizational Identification – The extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent • There are three stages of socialization: Anticipatory, Encounter, and Role Management • Anticipatory Socialization: Socialization that occurs before a person becomes a member of a particular organization. Includes a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition Eg. University. Also includes informal anticipatory socialization such as that acquired through summer jobs or TV shows. There are also organization recruitment events. • Encounter – In this stage, the new recruit encounters the day to day reality of the organizational life. Formal aspects include orientation programs and rotation through various parts of the organization. Informal aspects include getting to know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and coworkers. The organization is looking for an acceptable degree of conformity to the organizational norms and the gradual acquisition of appropriate role behaviour. Recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled. • Role Management – The new member’s attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing his/her role in the organization. The new recruit might now be in a position to modify the role to better serve the organization, which might require forming connections outside the immediate workgroup. Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract • Research indicates that people entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high • Once they enter an organization, they realize that their expectations are not being met and experience a “reality shock” • Newcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival • Unrealistic expectations can occur due to occupational stereotypes Eg. TV shows or overzealous recruiters who pain rosy pictures to attract job candidates • Psychological Contract – Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization Eg. Bonuses in return for hard work • Psychological Contract Breach – Employee perceptions that his/her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises/obligations in the psychological contract • Breach is related to affective reactions (higher feelings of contract violation), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction), and work behaviours (lower job performance) • This breach can occur due to the overzealous recruiters and newcomers that lack sufficient info to form accurate perceptions concerning their psychological contract • It can also occur due to organizational changes such as downsizing and restructuring Methods of Organizational Socialization • Some organizations rely on external socialization (medical, law school) and others handle their own socialization • Organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing, how it is done, and how much is done • Most organizations make sure of a number of methods of socialization including realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics and mentoring • Realistic job previews – The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants • Thus they provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory stage • To conduct realistic job previews, organizations obtain the views of experienced employees and human resources staff about the positive and negative aspects of the job and then incorporate these views into booklets/videos • This is effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance; can bring substantial financial savings for organizations
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