Chapter 1 - Organizational Behaviour and Management

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Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

Week 1Chapter 1Organizational Behaviour and Management What are OrganizationsOrganizationssocial inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effortsocial inventionscoordinated presence of peoplegoalssurvivalBehaviours for survivaladaptationppl have to be motivated to join and remain in orgoCarry out bascule work reliablyproductivity quality and servicesoWilling to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skillsoBe flexible and innovativeGroup effortdepend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goalsOB involves understanding people and managing them to work effectively how org can survive and adapt to change and how to get people to practise effective teamworkWhat is OBOrganizational behaviourthe attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizationsOB systematically studies these attitudes and behaviours and provide insight about effectively managing and changing them structure of organizations how events of external environment affects orgCompetitive advantage and organizational effectiveness is related to management and OBGoals of OBPredicting explaining managing managementart of getting things accomplished in organizations through othersEarly Prescriptions concerning ManagementClassical viewpointadvocated a very high degree of specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingTo maintain control classical view suggested managers have fairly few workers except for lowerlevel jobs where machine pacing might substitute for close supervisionScientific managementFrederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksHe supported development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures and he encouraged supervisors to standardize workers movements and breaks for maximum efficiencyBureaucracyMax Webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competenceWeberbureaucracy will provide workers with security and a sense of purposeEvidencebased managementtranslation principles based on best scientific evidence into organizational practicesHawthorne studiesresearch conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustmentHuman relations movementcritique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs1
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