Chapter 8- Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Information Dependence and Effect Dependence (2 forms of social dependence)
Information Dependence: reliance on others for info about how to think, feel, and act.
Effect Dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and
* Both contribute to conformity to norms.
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ACTION
- Consequence of info and effect dependence is tendency for group members to conform
to social norms that have been established by the group
-group members are dependent -> oriented toward enforcing group norms
Motives for Social Conformity
Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or
-simplest, most direct, primarily involves effect dependence.
- adjusts behaviours, but does not subscribe to beliefs, values, attitudes that underlie the
- Ex. Convicts conform to formal prison norms out of compliance
Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who
promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself.
-person sees their self as similar to other organizational members and relies on them for
-ex. A newly promoted executive might attempt to dress and talk like her successful,
Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs,
values, and attitudes that underlie the norm
-person is no longer conforming simply because of social dependence.
- Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, NOT because it achieves rewards
(conformity due to INTERNAL not external forces).
- Ex. Religious leaders conform to norms of their religion.
The Subtle Power of Compliance
-PROBLEM: compliant person is doing something that is contrary to the way he/she thinks
or feels. This arouses a certain tension. Reduce- by ceasing conformity.
Ex. Ppl without religious beliefs might agree to be married in a church to please others.
Socialization: process by which ppl learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that
are necessary to function in a group or organization.
-primary means by which orgs communicate the orgs culture and values to new
members-important for newcomers to achieve a good fit (2 types)
- Process that affects proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning about one’s tasks,
roles, group, and org) as well as distal socialization outcomes (e.g. Job satisfaction,
- Organizational members learn norm and role requirements through 3 stages of
socialization: anticipatory, encounter, and role management.
Person- job fit: match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the
requirements of a job.
Person- organization fit: match between an employee’s personal values and the values of
Organizational Identification: extent to which a person defines their self in terms of the
org. and what it is perceived to represent.
-distal outcome of socialization (attitude)
3 Stages of Socialization
Anticipatory Socialization: occurs before entry; includes a formal process of skill and
attitude acquisition (attending university). Might be informal (acquired through a series
of summer jobs)
Encounter: new recruit encounters day to day reality of life. Includes orientation
programs and rotations through various parts of org. inform aspects include getting to
know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers. Org and
experienced members look for acceptable degree of conformity to org norms and
Role Management: actively managing their role in org to better serve org. forming
connections outside immediate work group. Balance work roles with non work role and
- occurs after one has been a member or some period of time.
Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract
-ppl entering orgs. tend to have expectations that are inaccurate and unrealistically high
that can cause them to experience a reality shock when they enter an org.
- may stem from TV shows, overzealous recruiters, occupational stereotypes.
Psychological Contract: beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations
and promises between them and their org.
- Ex. Employee mi