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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 8

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Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Chapter 8- Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS Information Dependence and Effect Dependence (2 forms of social dependence) Information Dependence: reliance on others for info about how to think, feel, and act. Effect Dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments. * Both contribute to conformity to norms. SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ACTION - Consequence of info and effect dependence is tendency for group members to conform to social norms that have been established by the group -group members are dependent -> oriented toward enforcing group norms Motives for Social Conformity Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. -simplest, most direct, primarily involves effect dependence. - adjusts behaviours, but does not subscribe to beliefs, values, attitudes that underlie the norm - Ex. Convicts conform to formal prison norms out of compliance Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. -person sees their self as similar to other organizational members and relies on them for info. -ex. A newly promoted executive might attempt to dress and talk like her successful, admired boss. Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm -person is no longer conforming simply because of social dependence. - Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, NOT because it achieves rewards (conformity due to INTERNAL not external forces). - Ex. Religious leaders conform to norms of their religion. The Subtle Power of Compliance -PROBLEM: compliant person is doing something that is contrary to the way he/she thinks or feels. This arouses a certain tension. Reduce- by ceasing conformity. Ex. Ppl without religious beliefs might agree to be married in a church to please others. ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION Socialization: process by which ppl learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization. -primary means by which orgs communicate the orgs culture and values to new members-important for newcomers to achieve a good fit (2 types) - Process that affects proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning about one’s tasks, roles, group, and org) as well as distal socialization outcomes (e.g. Job satisfaction, turnover). - Organizational members learn norm and role requirements through 3 stages of socialization: anticipatory, encounter, and role management. Person- job fit: match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job. Person- organization fit: match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization. Organizational Identification: extent to which a person defines their self in terms of the org. and what it is perceived to represent. -distal outcome of socialization (attitude) 3 Stages of Socialization Anticipatory Socialization: occurs before entry; includes a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition (attending university). Might be informal (acquired through a series of summer jobs) Encounter: new recruit encounters day to day reality of life. Includes orientation programs and rotations through various parts of org. inform aspects include getting to know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers. Org and experienced members look for acceptable degree of conformity to org norms and behaviour. Role Management: actively managing their role in org to better serve org. forming connections outside immediate work group. Balance work roles with non work role and family demands. - occurs after one has been a member or some period of time. Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract -ppl entering orgs. tend to have expectations that are inaccurate and unrealistically high that can cause them to experience a reality shock when they enter an org. - may stem from TV shows, overzealous recruiters, occupational stereotypes. Psychological Contract: beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their org. - Ex. Employee mi
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