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Chapter 9

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Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Professor
All Prof.
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9Leadership What is LeadershipLeadership The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context Has a strong effect on an organizations strategy success and survival Effective leadership exerts influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity innovation satisfaction and commitment of the workforce Strategic Leadership Leadership that involves the ability to anticipate envision maintain flexibility think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization Can provide an organization with a sustainable competitive advantage by helping it compete in turbulent and unpredictable environments and by exploiting growth opportunitiesFormal leaders eg managers executives are expected to influence others and are given specific authority to direct employees However the presence of a formal leadership role is no guarantee that there is leadership Since informal leaders do not have formal authority they must rely on being well liked or being perceived as highly skilled to exert influence Are Leaders Born The Search for Leadership Traits Research on Leadership TraitsTraits Individual characteristics such as physical attributes intellectual ability and personalityTraits associated with leadership effectiveness include intelligence energy selfconfidence dominance motivation to lead emotional stability honesty and integrity and need for achievement However connections between these traits and good leaders are not very strong Three of the big five personality dimensions agreeableness extraversion and openness to experience are related to leadership behavioursThe relationship between intelligence and leadership is considerably lower than previously thoughtLimitations of the Trait ApproachIt is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traitsWe have little information about how to train and develop leaders and no way to diagnose failures of leadership what do dominant intelligent or tall people do to influence others successfullyThe trait approach to leadership fails to consider the situation in which leadership occursTraits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership Traits are only a precondition for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful ie possessing the appropriate traits for leadership make it more likely that certain actions will be taken and will be successful The trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group settingThe Behaviour of Leaders Consideration and Initiating StructureConsideration The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees The considerate leader is seen as friendly and egalitarian expresses appreciation and support and is protective of group welfareInitiating Structure The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment The structuring leader clearly defines and organizes hisher role and the roles of followers stresses standard procedures schedules the work to be done and assigns employees to particular tasks A leader could be high low or average in one or both dimensionsThe Consequences of Consideration and StructureConsideration and initiating structure both contribute positively to employees motivation job satisfaction and leader effectiveness Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction leader satisfaction and job satisfaction motivation and leader effectivenessInitiating structure tends to be more strongly related to leader job performance and group performance The effects of consideration and initiating structure often depend on characteristics of the task the employee and the setting in which work is performed o When employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines unclear tasks or external threat initiating structure increases satisfaction and performance o When the task itself is intrinsically satisfying the need for high consideration and high structure is generally reduced o When the goals and methods of performing the job are very clear and certain consideration should promote employee satisfaction while structure might promote dissatisfaction o When employees lack knowledge as to how to perform a job or the job itself has vague goals or methods consideration becomes less important while initiating structure takes on additional importanceLeader Reward and Punishment BehavioursLeader Reward Behaviour The leaders use of compliments tangible benefits and deserved special treatment Leader Punishment Behaviour The leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewardso Noncontingent punishment behaviour is related to unfavourable outcomes Leader reward and punishment behaviour contingent on employee behaviour and performance is positively related to employees perceptions eg trust in supervisor attitudes eg job satisfaction and organizational commitment and behaviour eg effort performance organizational citizenship behaviourLeader reward and punishment behaviour is related to employee attitudes and behaviours because it leads to more positive perceptions of justice and lower role ambiguitySituational Theories of LeadershipThe effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting includes characteristics of the employees the nature of the task they are performing and characteristic of the organization Fiedlers Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource TheoryContingency Theory Fred Fiedlers theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence Some situations are more favourable for leadership than others and these situations require different leadership orientationsLeast Preferred CoWorker LPC A current or past coworker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task
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