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MGHB02H3 (268)
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Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
All Prof.

Chapter 5Theories of Work MotivationWhy Study MotivationMotivation has become more important in contemporary organizationsmostly a result of the need for increased productivity to be globally competitive Also a result of the rapid changes that contemporary organizations are undergoing requirements for flexibility and attention to customers require higher levels of motivation What is Motivation Basic Characteristics of MotivationMotivation The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Characteristics Effort The strength of the persons workrelated behaviour or the amount of effort a person exhibits on the job Involves different kinds of activities on different kinds of jobs eg a loading dock worker exhibits greater effort by carrying heavier crates Refers to the quantity of work an individual produces Persistence The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks Refers to the quantity of work an individual produces Direction Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization Refers to the quality of a persons work motivation means working smart as well as working hard Goals All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed Employee goals include high productivity good attendance or creative decisions support the objectives of the organizationExtrinsic and Intrinsic MotivationIntrinsic Motivation Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task it is usually selfapplied Eg feelings of achievement accomplishment challenge competence derived from performing ones job Extrinsic Motivation Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task it is usually applied by others Eg pay fringe benefits company policies and various forms of supervisionSome motivators are both extrinsic and intrinsic eg a promotion or a compliment might by applied by the boss but might also be a clear signal of achievement and competence SelfDetermination Theory SDT A theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled Autonomous Motivation When people are selfmotivated by intrinsic factors Facilitates effective performance especially on complex tasks Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and as a result no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate him or her to perform the behaviour Controlled Motivation When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward The negative effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation occurs only under very limited conditions ie the notion that when extrinsic rewards depend on performance then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases Motivation and PerformancePerformance The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization
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