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MGHB02H3 (269)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2,3,4,5,6,9,11 Notes

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Management (MGH)
Brian Connelly

OB FINAL EXAM NOTES CHAPTER 2 Personality stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with environment as well as how he/she feels, thinks and behaves 3 approaches o Dispositional - Individuals possessstable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways o Situational - Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishment influence peoples feelings, attitudes and behaviour o Interactionist OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation (most accepted approach) In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement and punishment contingencies personality has biggest impact in these situations In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined less impact 5 Factor Model of Personality: (each dimension related to job perf., motivation & life satisfaction; also predict job search and career successand are related to vocational interests and preferences) o Extraversion o Emotional stability/neuroticism o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness strongest predictor of overall job perf. o Openness to experience Locus of Control - A set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors o Internal opportunity to control own behaviour resides within themselves (initiative) - more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions - copewith stress better, engage in more careful career planning o Externals - believe that external forces determine their behaviour (fate, luck) Self-Monitoring - The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships (high self-mon. take care to observe and control images they project) o High self-mon. show concern for socially appropriate behaviour and social cues o Gravitate to jobs that require role-playing and use of self-presentation skills o More involved in jobs, perform better, more likely to emerge as leaders o More likely to have role stress and show less commitment to organization www.notesolution.com o More likely to have more promotions and change employers o Not comfortable in ambiguous social settings o Unfamiliar cultures might provoke stress Self-Esteem - The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem o Events and people in organizations have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self-esteem o People with high self-esteem make more fulfilling career decisions and have higher job satisfaction and job performance 5 personality variables found to be important for OB: o Positive affectivity - People who are high on positive affectivity (PA) experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light o Negative affectivity - People who are high on negative affectivity (NA) experience negative emotions and moods and view the world in a negative light o Proactive personality - Proactive individuals search for and identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring about meaningful change o General self-efficacy - A general trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations motivational trait rather than affective trait o Core self-evaluations - A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth, competence, and capability 4 traits of core self-evaluations: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control & neuroticism (emotional stability) - PA and NA emotional dispositions that predict ppls general emotional tendencies Learning - A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential as a result of practice or experience Practical skills Job-specific skills, knowledge, technical competence. Intrapersonal skills Problem solving, critical thinking, alternative work processes, risk taking Interpersonal skills Interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution. Cultural awareness The social norms of organizations, company goals, business operations, expectations, and priorities. www.notesolution.com Operant Learning Theory - The subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences It is the connection between the behaviour and the consequence that is learned o Reinforcement processwhere stimuli strengthen behaviours o Reinforce stimulus that follows some behaviour & increases/maintains probability of it occurring o Positive reinforcement addition of stimulus increases probability of behaviour o Negative reinforcement removal of stimulus from situation where the stimulus increases/maintains probability of some behaviour Two important sources of reinforcement that managers often ignore are performance feedback and social recognition Perf. Feedback most effective when: conveyed in positive manner, delivered immediately after observation, represented visually, specific to the behaviour being targeted Social recognition involves informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual to another For fast acquisition of some response, continuous and immediate reinforcement should be used Reducing probability of learned behaviour: Extinction (The gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement) and Punishment(The application of an aversive stimulus following unwanted behaviour to decrease the probability of that behaviour) Social Cognitive Theory - People learn by observing the behaviour of others and can regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves o Modelling - The process of imitating the behaviour of others; Attractive, credible, competent, high-status people are most likely to be imitated; It is important that the models behaviour result in positive consequences and that it is vivid and memorable o Self-efficacy - Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task (determinants perf. Mastery, observ., social infl., physio. State) o Self-regulation - The use of learning principles to regulate ones own behaviour (Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production lie at the heart of the self- regulatory process) Ogranizational Learning Practises o OB. Modification - The systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour o Employee Rec. Programs - Formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours www.notesolution.com o Training Pograms - Effective training programs strengthen self-efficacy and include positive reinforcement, feedback, modelling, and self-regulation Behaviour Modelling Training state set of well-defined behaviours/skills to be learned; models displaying effective use of behaviours/skills; providing opportunities to practice those skills; providing feedback and social reinforcement after practice; max. transfer of behaviours to job Career Devt career planning and career mgmt. CHAPTER 3 Perception - The processof interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment 3 components of perception perceiver, target being perceived, situation (context) Perceiver past experiences (leads to devt of expectations that affect current perceptions), motivational state (needs unconsciously influence perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive), emotional state (can influence perceptions anger, fear, happiness) Perceptual defence - The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions (People often see what they want to see and hear what they want to hear) Target - Perceivers have a need to resolve ambiguities Situation - Perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what is perceived; The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target; The perception of a target can change with the situation even when the perceiver and target remain the same Social Identity Theory - People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories self composed of personal and social identity o Personal identity based on our unique characteristics o Social identity based on our perception t
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