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Canada (161,661)
MGHB02H3 (269)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Social Influence in Organizations  Information Dependence and Effect Dependence  Information dependence – reliance on others for information about how to think, feel and act  Effect dependence – reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment Social Influence in Action  Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance – the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms. It occurs because a member wishes to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment. Involves effect dependence  Identification – conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Internalization – conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm Organizational Socialization  Socialization – the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviors that are necessary to function in a group or organization  Person-job fit – the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills and abilities and the requirements of a job  Person-organization fit – match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization  Organizational identification – the extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent  Stages of Socialization  Anticipatory Socialization – a considerable amount of socialization occurs even before a person becomes a member of a particular organization  Encounter – in this stage, the new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life, encounters day to day reality of this life. Orientations and rotation through diff. parts of organization  Role Management – fine tuning and actively managing his or her role in the organization. Modify the role to better serve the organization  Unexpected Expectations and the Psychological Contract  Unrealistic Expectations – people who enter organizations have unrealistically high expectations. They then experience reality shocks and expectations are unmet  Psychological Contract – beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization  Psychological Contract Breach – employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more its promises or obligations of the psychological contract Methods of Organizational Socialization  Realistic Job Previews  The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants  Research Evidence – realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance  Self-selection – process where realistic previews cause those not cut out for the job or who have low P-O and P-J fit perceptions to withdraw from the application process  Employee Orientation Programs  Programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with and the organization. Consists of health and safety issues, terms and conditions of employment and info about the organization such as history and traditions. Another purpose is to begin conveying and forming the psychological contract and teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations.  Research Evidence – orientation programs are important method of socialization because they have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviors of new hires.  Socialization Tactics  The manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another. There are 6 tactics  Collective vs Individual Tactics – in collective, a number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges while individual consists of socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each new member  Formal vs Informal Tactics – formal involves segregating newcomers from regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences during the period of socialization while informal does not distinguish a newcomer from more experienced members and rely more on informal and on the job learning.  Sequential vs Random Tactics – has to do with whether there is a clear sequence of steps or stages during the socialization process. With sequential, there is a fixed sequence of steps leading to the assumption of the role while with random, there is an ambiguous or changing sequence.  Fixed vs Variable Tactics – if fixed, there is a time table for the newcomer’s assumption of the role while if variable, there is no time frame to indicate when the socialization process ends and newcomer assumes his or her role.  Serial vs Disjunctive Tactics – serial refers to a process in which newcomers are socialized by experienced members of the organization. Disjunctive refers to a socialization process where role models and experienced organization members do not groom new members  Investiture vs Divestiture Tactics – divestiture refers to what is also known as debasement and hazing; experiences that humble and strip initial self-confidence.
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