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Canada (162,165)
MGHB02H3 (269)
Anna Nagy (23)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 13 – Conflict and Stress What is conflict?  Interpersonal Conflict – is a process that occurs when one person, group or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another Causes of Organizational conflict  Group Identification and Intergroup Bias  Identification with a particular group or class of people can set the stage for organizational conflict  Self-esteem is a critical factor of intergroup bias  Interdependence  When individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their own goals, the potential for conflict exists.  Can set stage for conflict for two reasons:  First, it necessitates interaction between the parties so that they can coordinate their interests  It implies that one party has some power over the other  It often provides a good basis for collaboration through mutual assistance  Differences in Power, Status, Culture  Power – if dependence is not mutual but one way, the potential for conflict increases  Status – status differences provide little impetus for conflict when people of lower status are dependent on those of higher status.  Culture – when two or more cultures develop in an org, the clash in beliefs and values can result in overt conflict.  Ambiguity  Ambiguous goals, jurisdictions or performance criteria can lead to conflict. Under this, formal and informal rules that govern interaction break down.  Scarce Resources  Differences in power are magnified when resources become scarce.  It has a way of turning latent or disguised conflict into overt conflict. Types of Conflict  Relationship Conflict – interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand  Task Conflict – disagreements about the nature of the work to be done  Process Conflict – disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished Conflict Dynamics  Winning the conflict becomes more important than developing a good solution to the problem at hand  The parties begin to conceal information from each other or to pass on distorted information  Each side becomes more cohesive  Contact with the opposite party is discouraged except under formalized, restricted conditions  While the opposite party is negatively stereotyped, the image of one’s own position is boosted  On each side, more aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may emerge as leaders Modes of Managing Conflict  Avoiding – characterized by low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party  Accommodating – one cooperates with the other party while not asserting one’s own interests  Competing – style that tends to maximize assertiveness for your own position and minimize cooperative responses  Compromise – combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation; tend to satisfice than maximize; places a premium on determining rules of exchange between the two parties  Collaborating – both assertiveness and cooperation are maximized in the hope that an integrative agreement occurs that fully satisfies the interest of both parties Managing Conflict with Negotiation  Negotiation – a decision-making process among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences  Distributive Negotiation – win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is divided between parties  Integrative Negotiation – win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to be divided between parties  Distributive Negotiation Tactics – essentially single-issue negotiation  Threats and Promises – threat consists of implying that you will punish the other party if he or she does not concede to your position. Promises are pledges that concessions will lead to rewards in the future  Firmness vs Concessions  Intransigence – sticking to target position, offering few concessions and waiting for the other party to give in – research says that this is likely reciprocated by the other party  Small series of small concessions will often be matched  Persuasion  One prong asserts the technical merits of the party’s position  Other prong asserts the fairness of the target position  Integrative Negotiation Tactics  Copious Information Exchange – most of the information exchanged in distributive bargaining is concerned with attacking the other party’s position and trying to persuade them of the correctness of yours  Framing Differences as Opportunities – parties often differ in preferences and these are viewed as barriers to negotiations; however, these can be viewed as a basis of integrative agreements.  Cutting Costs – if you can cut costs, chance of integrative settlement increases  Increasing Resources – increasing available resources is literal way of getting around the fixed-pie syndrome  Introducing Superordinate Goals – attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration  Third Party Involvement  Mediation – occurs when a neutral third party helps to facilitate a negotiated agreement; does anything that aids the process or atmosphere of negotiation  Arbitration – occurs when a third party is given the authority to dictate the terms of settlement of a conflict  In conventional, arbitrator can choose any outcome  In final offer arbitration, each party makes a final offer, and he chooses one Is All Conflict Bad?  CONFLICT → CHANGE → ADAPTATION → SURVIVAL  Conflict simulation - a strategy of increasing conflict to motivate change A Model of Stress in Organizations  Stressors – environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress; includes extreme heat, extreme cold, isolation or hostile people  Stress – psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense or anxious because the person does not feel capable of coping with these demands  Stress reactions – the behavioral, psychological and physiological consequences of stress  Personality an
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