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MGHB02H3 (268)
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Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

MGTB27 / 01 Week 3 Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour (pg. 110 137) - Through the cover story of LOral, it describes the different natures of generation o recent generation, most schooled generation ever so they would like responsibility early on in their career, more career and results focused o baby boomers, believed that you must start from the bottom and work your way up, during first meeting, your were not suppose to speak, just observe - This story illustrates how generational differences in values and work attitudes affect workplace behaviour What Are Values? - Values are broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others - The preference aspect is what we consider good and bad. Values are motivational since it attracts aspects of our environment that we seek avoid the unattractive aspects - They also signal how we believe we should and should not behave - Broad tendency means that our values are very general and that they do not predict behaviour in specific situation very well (e.g. knowing a person who values family will not tell us how they will respond to climate change) - People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare - We learn values through reinforcement processes reinforced by parents, teachers, and representatives of religions Generational Differences in Values - In many contemporary organizations, there are often generations comprised of: o Traditionalists: born 1922 1945, 8% of workforce o Baby Boomers: born 1946 1964, 44% of workforce o Generation X: born 1965 1980, 34% of workforce o Millennials: born 1981 2000, 14% and increasing [generation Y] - These generations are distinguished by their different growing socialization experiences (e.g. baby boomers faced a vibrant economy since after the war) - Value differences between generations may underlie the differential workplace assets and preferences for leadership style (e.g. fair, treat as equals, direct, motivational) - Stereotypes that may concern the generations are: o Traditionalists respectful of authority and having a high work ethic o Boomers optimistic workaholics o Gen X cynical, confident and pragmatic o Gen Y confident, social, demanding of feedback, and somewhat unfocused - Accurate findings are that Gen Ys value autonomy and that Xers, compared to boomers, are less loyal, more wanting of promotion, and more inclined to work-life balance - All work generations share the same values but express them differently (e.g. most people value respect, for older employees this means being referred to while for Gen X and Y this means being listened to) - A good fit between a persons values & those of the organization [person-organization fit] leads to positive work attitudes and behaviours (e.g. reduced chances of quitting) - This means organizations must tailor job designs, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of their workforces MGTB27 / 02 Week 3 Cultural Differences in Values - Business has now become global meaning Japan cars could be on North American roads - Research shows that 16-40% of managers who receive foreign assignment terminate early due to poor performance because they are not able to adjust to that culture - Many failed business negotiations is attributable to a lack of understanding of cross-cultural differences - Work Centrality o Work itself is valued differently across cultures o People with high work centrality perceive work as a central life interest and tend to work more hours o Ranging from highest to lowest: Japan, Belgians and Americans, British o If someone won the lottery and continued working at their current job because they enjoy it, they have high work centrality o Cross-cultural differences in work centrality can lead to adjustment problems for foreign employees and managers British executive is posted to Japan and finds out that Japanese managers often work late into the night and socialize with co-workers/customers - Hofstedes Study o Dutch social scientist Geert Hofstede discovered five basic dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: Power distance power distance refers to the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power In small distance power cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed (e.g. Denmark, New Zealand, Israel, Austria, Canada, U.S.) In large power distance cultures, inequality is accepted, superiors are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted (e.g. Philippines, Venezuela, and Mexico) Uncertainty avoidance uncertain avoidance refers to the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations Strong: stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security (e.g. Japan, Greece, and Portugal) Weak: less concerned with rules, conformity and security, and hard work are not seen as a virtue (Singapore, Denmark, Canada, U.S.) Masculinity/femininity Masculine culture: support the dominance of men and stress economic performance (e.g. Japan, Austria, Mexico, U.S.) Feminine culture: accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life (e.g. Scandinavian countries) Individualism/collectivism Individualistic societies tend to stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy (e.g. U.S., Australia, Great Britain, Canada) Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to ones family or clan (e.g. Venezuela, Columbia, and Pakistan) Long-term/short-term orientationMGTB27 / 03 Week 3 Cultures with long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift and close attention to status differences (e.g. China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea) Cultures with short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face saving, and social niceties (e.g. U.S., Canada, Great Britain) - Values of power distance and degree of individualism tend to be related o Cultures that are more individualistic tend to downplay power differences (U.S.) o Cultures that are more collectivistic tend to accentuate power differences (Japan) Implications of Cultural Variation - Exporting OB Theories o Cross-cultural study of OB theories, research and practices from North America may not translate well to other societies o Examples North American managers tend to encourage participation in work decisions by employees (low power distance) compared to manager in Mexico whos employees are more comfortable deferring to the bosss decision (low power distance) Individualistic North America may call attention to individuals accomplishment but Asian cultures devalue individual success and would rather reward groups than individuals (collectivism) o A good fit between compan
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