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Management (MGH)
Sujay Vardhmane

Chapter 7 Training and Development The Scope of Training Many new employees come with most KSAs needed to start work, while others may require more extensive training Training is any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members Training perceived to be oriented towards short-term performance, while development tends to be more oriented broadening skills for future responsibilities Primary reason for training: to bring their KSAs up to the level required for satisfactory performance Investments in Training Organizations revenue and overall profitability positively correlated with training Average expenditure in Canada on training and development was 1.75 percent of payroll and organizations annually provided about 30 hours of training per employee A Systems Approach to Training Goal of training is to contribute to organization goals Managers should assess org goals and strategies and orient training accordingly o However, many fail to link objectives with goals (managerial fads take precedence) wasted investment Training programs often misdirected, poorly designed, and inadequately evaluated To ensure maximum impact on individual and organization, a systems approach should be used, which involves 4 phases: (1) needs assessment, (2) program design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment Potential signals for training o Workers consistently failing to achieve productivity objectives o Excessive number of customer complaints Managers should approach needs assessment systematically by utilizing 3 different types of analysis: organizational, task, and person analysis Conduct a needs assessment before initiating a training program Chapter 7 Training and Development Organizational Analysis Examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed Economic and public policy issues influence training needs o i.e. Sept 11 airport security personnel Aggressive hospitality discourages troublemakers from coming to the facility Some training revolves around the strategic initiatives of an organization o Mergers & Acquisitions frequently requires employees take on new roles and responsibilities and adjust to new cultures and ways of conducting business Other issues: technological change, globalization, reengineering, TQM, organizational restructuring, downsizing, empowerment and teamwork Trends in the workforce itself have an impact on training needs o i.e. Younger workers need to be trained to replace retiring workers Examination of resources (technological, financial, and human) that are available to meet training objectives Collect data to use in the analysis o i.e. direct/indirect labour costs, quality of goods or services, absenteeism, turnover, and number of accidents Other factors important in organizational analysis: availability of potential replacements and he time to train them Task Analysis The process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis on a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job Identify activities performed in a particular job and the KSAs needed to perform them Step 1: List all the tasks or duties included in the job Step 2: List the steps performed by the employee to complete each task Once job is understood, the type of performance required (i.e. speech, recall discrimination, and manipulation), along with skills and knowledge necessary for performance can be defined Tasks analysis shifting from an emphasis on a fixed sequence of tasks to the more flexible sets of competencies required for superior performance Competency assessment Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision- oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs Chapter 7 Training and Development o Goes beyond describing traits an employee must have to successfully perform o Captures elements of how traits should be used within an organizations context and culture (i.e. motivation levels, personality traits, interpersonal skills, etc.) Person Analysis Determination of the specific individuals who need training Equally important to determine which do not need training Helps organizations avoid the mistake of sending all employees into training when some do not need it Helps managers determine what prospective trainees are able to do when they enter training so the programs can be designed to emphasize the areas in which they are deficient HP uses performance appraisal info as an input for person analysis o Reveals who is not meeting expectations, but not why o If performance deficiencies are due to ability problems training o If performance deficiencies are due to poor motivation or factors outside an employees control training may not be the answer Phase 2: Designing the Training Program Design the type of learning environment necessary to enhance learning Training design should focus on at least four related issues: (1) instructional objectives, (2) trainee readiness and motivation, (3) principles of learning, and (4) characteristics of instructors Instructional Objectives Desired outcomes of a training program Describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired and/or attitudes to be changed Performance-centred objective: unbiased evaluation of results (a type of instructional objective) State clearly what you intend the results of that instruction to be A clear statement of instructional objectives will provide a sound basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the instruction will be successful Trainee Readiness and Motivation Two preconditions for learning that affect those who are to receive training Trainee readiness refers to both maturity and experience factors in the trainees background Chapter 7 Training and Development o Prospective trainees should be screened to determine that they have the background knowledge and skills to absorb what will be presented to them o Increase readiness by having them complete questionnaires about why they are attending training and what they hope to accomplish Trainee motivation o Individuals who are conscientious, goal-oriented, self-disciplined, and persevering are more likely to perceive a link between effort they put into training and higher performance o Optimum learning requires trainees to recognize the need for new knowledge or skills, and maintain a desire to learn as training progresses o Managers can create a training environment that is conductive to learning o Six strategies can be essential Use positive reinforcement Eliminate threats and punishment Be flexible Have participants set personal goals Design interesting instruction Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning Most employees are motivated by certain common needs, but they differ from one another in the relative importance of these needs at any given time (i.e. university graduates have a high desire for advancement) Principles of Learning All things considered, training programs are likely to be more effective If they incorporate the principles of learning: Goal Setting o When trainers take the time to explain goals and objectives or when trainees are encouraged to set goals on their own o Level of interest, understanding, and effort directed toward training is likely to increase Meaningfulness of Presentation
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