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MGHB12H3 (73)
Chapter 004

Human Resource Management - Chapter 004

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Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

CHAPTER 4: JOB ANALYSIS AND WORK DESIGN 18 September 2013 Job is a group of related activities and duties. The duties of a job should consist of natural units of work that are similar and related. They should be clear and distinct from those of other jobs to minimize misunderstanding among employees. Position is the different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee (IE: Reference librarian is a job, four employees are four positions). Job Family Is a group of individual jobs with similar characteristics. Job Specification is a statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the job. This serves as an essential role in the recruiting function to attract qualified applicants and discouraging unqualified ones. Job Description is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilitiesof a job to be performed. It is used to select employees and orient them to jobs. Any discrepancies between the knowledge, skills, and abilities demonstrated by a jobholder and the requirements provide clues to training needs. It prepares the employees for advancement to jobs where their capacities can be utilized to the fullest extent. Therequirementsinthejobdescriptionisthecriteriaforevaluatingperformance.Resultsofperformance appraisal may reveal that certain requirements established are not completely valid. If criteria used to evaluate employee performance are vague and not job related, employers may find themselves being charged with unfair discrimination. Determining the rate to be paid worth for performing a job is based on what the job demands of an employee in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, conditions, and hazards under which the work is performed. Asystematiccollectionofjobdataensurethatajob’sdutiesmatchitsjobdescriptions(IE:Non-job-related criteria, job applicants for laborer positions required to have high school diplomas, applicants for skilled craft positions to be male, are discriminatory). RECRUITMENT  SELECTION  TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT  LEGAL COMPLIANCE Job Analysis is the process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs. The procedure involves systematically investigating jobs by following a number of predetermined steps specified in advance of the study. When completed, job analysis results in a written report summarizing the information obtained from the analysis of 20 or 30 individual job tasks or activities. HRmanagers usethis data to develop job descriptions and specifications. The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity. Job design reflects subjective opinions about the ideal requirements of a job, job analysis is concerned with objective and verifiable information bout actual requirements of a job. SOURCES OF DATA & METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA  JOB DATA  JOB DESCRIPTION & JOB SPECIFICATION  HUMAN RESOURCES FUNCTIONS Gathering Job Information  Interviews is where the job analyst may question individual about the job under review  Questionnaires is when the job analyst circulates prepared questionnaires to be filled out individually  Observation is when the job analyst may learn about the jobs by observing and recording on a standardized form of activities  Diaries is when they are asked to keep a diary of theirwork activities during an entire work cycle, filled out at specific times of the work shift and maintained for a 2-4 week period Job data collected must be accurate. Job analyst should be alert for employees who tend to exaggerate the difficultyoftheirjobs to inflatetheiregos andtheir paycheques.Jobanalystsmustlookfor responses that do not agree with other facts or impressions the analyst has received by double checking the data with others. The National Occupational Classification (NOC) is compiled by the federal government. Its purpose is to compile, analyze, and communicate information about occupations. It is a composite of the Canadian labor market and brings about a greater degree of uniformity in the job titles and descriptions used by employers in different parts of the country. The NOC code numbers facilitate the exchange of statistical information about jobs and are useful in reporting research in the HR area, vocational counselling, and charting career paths through job transfers or advancements. Several different job analysis approaches are used to gather data. Four popular methods:  Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a 5 point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job  Critical Incident Method is where important job tasks are identified for job success  Task Inventory Analysis is the organization-specific list of tasks and their descriptions used as a basis to identify components of jobs. This technique is developed by identifying a list of tasks and descriptions that are components of the job, its goal is the produce a comprehensive list of task statements that are applicable to all jobs. Task statements are then listed on a task inventory surveyform to becompletedbythepersonanalyzingthejobunderreview.Thejobanalysisnotes importance and frequency of use of the task to the successful completion of the job  Competency Based Analysis is adopted when organizations operate in a fast-moving environment. Itreliesonbuilding job profilesthat look attheresponsibilitiesandactivitiesofjobs andtheworkercompetenciesfororganizationalsuccess.Competenciescanbeidentifiedthrough focus groups, surveys, interviews, and may include communication skills, decision making ability, conflict resolution skills, etc. HRIS and Job Analysis  Job Description is a written description of a job and the types of duties it includes. There is no standardformatforjobdescriptionsandtendtovaryinappearance.Jobdescriptionsarevaluable to both employees as it reminds them of the results they are expected to achieve, and employers to serve as a basis for minimizing the misunderstandings that occur between managers and their subordinates concerning job requirements. They also establish management’s right to take corrective action when the duties covered by the job description are not performed as required. Job descriptions contain 3 parts: o Job Title provides status for the employee (IE: Psychologically important, sanitary engineer vs. garbage collector). It should indicate relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy (IE: Junior engineer, senior engineer) o Job Identification Section follows the job title, including items such as the departmental location of the job, person to whom the job holder reports, and the date the job description was last revised o Job Duties Section is arranged in order of importance, it stresses the responsibilities all the duties entail and the results they are to accomplish. It also indicates the tools and equipment used by the employee  Job Specification is the personal qualifications an individual must possess to perform the duties and responsibilities contained in a job description. It also includes interpersonal skills or key competencies necessary for job success. It contains 2 parts: o Skill required to perform the job (IE: Education, experience) o Physical demands the job places on the employee performing it (IE: How much walking, standing, lifting) Problems with Job Descriptions Several problems frequently associated:  Poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, provide little guidance  Not updated as job duties or specifications change  Violates the law by containing specifications not related to job success  Limits the scope of activities of the job holder, reducing organizational flexibility Writing Clear and Specific Job Descriptions  Present tense verb  Implied subject of the sentence being employee performing the job  Occasionally is used to describe duties performed once in a while  May is used in connection with duties performed only by some workers on the job Job Design is an outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction. Job design is a combination of 4 basic considerations:  Organizational objectives the job was created to fulfill o (IE: To improve efficiency and employee job satisfaction)  Behavioral concerns that influence an employee’s job satisfaction o Strive to satisfy intrinsic needs of employees and motivate them in work environments o Job enrichment model and job characteristics model is a popular way to increase job satisfaction of all employees  Job Enrichment is enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying. It can be accomplished by increasingtheautonomyandresponsibilityofemployees.Managerscanincrease the level of difficulty, allow employees to have more authority and control over work outcomes, and provide unit or individual job performance reports, adding new tasks that require training and growth, assigning individuals specific tasks to use their competencies or skills. Herzberg’s 5 factors for enriching jobs and motivating employees:  Achievement  Recognition  Growth  Responsibility  Performance of the Whole Job VS. Parts  Job Characteristics Model is a job design theory that purports that 3 psychological states (experiencing meaningfulness of the work performed, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of the results of the work performed) of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover. Hackman and Oldham’s 5 core job dimensions that produce the 3 psychological states are:  Skill Variety is the degree to which a job entails a variety of different activities, which demands the use of a number of different skills and talents  Task Identity is the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome  Task Significance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact
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