Textbook notes - Appendix

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

MGTB27 01 Week 1 Ssssfasdf Research in Organizational Behaviour Appendix (pg. 565 577) - Research is a way of finding out about the world through objective and systematic information gathering which differs from opinions and common sense - Understanding how researchers conduct their research is important because o You will be aware of how the information in this book was collected o A critical perspective is necessary to differentiate between carefully designed or useless processes that improve organizational behaviour (e.g. job redesign) o Understanding of organizational behaviour research is necessary for managers to make better decisions through evidence- based management - Evidence-based management involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. Managers will be able to make the best decisions based on scientific evidence from social science and organizational research rather than personal preference or unsystematic experience (more likely to reach goalsobjectives) The Basics of Organizational Behaviour Research - All research in organizational behaviour begins with a question about work or organizations. - Questions may stem from a formal theory (e.g. equity theory: what do people do when they perceive their pay 94-0944O4ZL3.425,7L8439449K075045O085, 47,3L220L,90 organizational problem (e.g. how to reduce absenteeism in customer service) - Research questions are expressed as hypothesis which are formal statements of the expected relationship between two variables (measures that can take on two or more values) o e.g. Hypothesis: The introduction of a small attendance bonus will reduce absents Variables: Bonus versus no bonus is two variables Types of Variables - In most research, we are concerned with two kinds of variables: o Independent variable the variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a dependent variable o Dependant variable variable that will vary as a result of changes in the independent variable E.g. independent variable = pay fairness; dependant variable = resigning independent variable=attendance bonus; dependent variable=absenteeism - Two other kinds of variables are: o Moderating variable variables that indicate when an independent variable is most likely to be related to a dependent variable (e.g. pay satisfaction) o Mediating variable variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable (e.g. ,-43:8L3.70,8085045O08249L;,9L43 to come to work) Measurement Variables - Good measures should exhibit high reliability, validity, convergent validity, or discriminate validity - Reliability L8,3L30[419K0.438L8903.41,7080,7.K8:-M0.98708543808 0 J ,5078438 response about pay should be relatively the same if asked today or next week when there is no change in pay) - Validity is an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to 20,8:70 0 J 507.0L;05,1,L730888K4:O349-0L31O:03.0-025O4008100OL3J841 fairness about other workplace factors such as supervision) www.notesolution.com
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