Textbook Notes - Chapter 5

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Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

MGTB27 01 Week 4 Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation (pg. 144 171) Why Study Motivation? - Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour - Motivation is important in contemporary organizations because there is a need for increased productivity in order to be globally competitive, the rapid changes that contemporary organizations are undergoing - There is no single all-purpose motivation theory but rather a good set of theories that recognize human diversity, explains how people are self-motivated or require external motivation, and recognizes that people may be affected by how they see others being treated What is Motivation? - %K047J,3L],9L43s perspective of someone being motivated usually means that the person Z47N8K,7N0058,9KL8 K07Z47N,3L70.98KL8 K07-0K,;L4:794Z,7,557457L,90 outcomes Basic Characteristics of Motivation - Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal - Four aspects of motivation: effort, persistence, direction, and goals: - Effort o %K089703J9K419K05078438Z47N-related behaviour or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job (for different activities, there are different efforts) o E.g. a loading dock worker might carry heavier crates to exhibit greater effort o E.g. a researcher may reveal greater effort by searching out an article in some obscure technical journal - Persistence o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks o E.g. loading dock worker who stacks the heaviest crates for two hours and then goofs off for six hours is not seen as especially highly motivated - Direction o The direction 419K05078438Z47N-related behaviour (also quality of work) o Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization? o E.g. motivated software designers design software, not play computer games - Goals o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed o In organizations, employee goals might include high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions o Goals such as absenteeism, sabotage, and embezzlement channel their persistent efforts in directions that are dysfunctional for the organization Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation - Some people are motivated by external factors in the environment (e.g. supervision or pay) while others are self-motivated without the application of external factors - Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and is usually self-applied o Examples: feelings for achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence - Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated o Examples: pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and forms of supervision www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 4 - Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities (e.g. a promotion or compliment might be applied by the boss but might be a clear signal of achievement and competence) - Self-determination theory $% L8,9K04741249L;,9L439K,9.438L078ZK09K075045O08 motivation is autonomous or controlled (whether intrinsic or extrinsic motivation) - Autonomous motivation is when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors - Controlled motivation is when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic award - Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes (becomes a part of them) the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate himher to perform the behaviour - Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance especially on complex tasks - There is debate that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself - When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases (may feel less competent and in control of their behaviour since they believe that their performance is controlled by the environment and they perform well because of money controlled motivation) - Another research found that the negative effect of extrinsic reward so intrinsic motivation occurs only under very limited conditions and they are easily avoidable Motivation and Performance - Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization - Motivation as well as: personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional intelligence, and change all contribute to performance - There are two types of intelligence or mental ability that influences performance: general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence: - General Cognitive Ability o Cognitive ability is often referred to what most people call intelligencemental ability o General cognitive ability L8,9072:80947010794,5078438-,8L.L31472,9L43 processing capacities and cognitive resources o ,3.O:08,3L3L;L:,O8overall capacity and efficiency for processing information as well as cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities required to perform mental tasks o General cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations (includes manual and mental tasks) o General cognitive ability is a better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of cognitive skills and information processing o :.,9L43L8,3L25479,39L3L.,947414308L390OOLJ03.0 - Emotional Intelligence o Emotional intelligence , L89K0,-LOL994:30789,3,32,3,J043084Z3,3 49K078100OL3J8,30249L438 o Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others o Individuals with high EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action o Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills or branches Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and other www.notesolution.com
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