Textbook Notes - Chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

MGTB27 01 Week 10 Chapter 7 Group Teamwork (pg. 216 243) What is a Group? - A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal - Interaction does not have to take place face-to-face or have to be verbal as members of a group could telecommute part of their work (e.g. email) - Interdependence means that group members rely to some degree on each other to accomplish goals - Group memberships are important because groups exert a tremendous influence on us and it provides a context in which we are able to exert influence on others - Formal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals - Designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction (e.g. managerssupervisors where employees report to) - The hierarchy of most organizations is a series of formal, interlocked work groups - Other formal work groups include: o Task forces temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems o Committees permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structures - Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members (membership often cuts across formal groups) - Informal groups can help or hurt an organization depending on their norms for behaviour Group Development - Even relatively simple groups require a fair amount of negotiation and trial and error before individual members begin to function as a true group Typical Stages of Group Development - Leaders and trainers notice that there are a series of stages that many groups develop and they must master the challenges in each stage before proceeding to the next stage: o Forming Group members try to orient themselves -9089L3J9K0Z,9078 Situation is often ambiguous and members are not aware of their dependency on others o Storming Conflict emerges where confrontation and criticism occurs as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing o Norming Members resolve issues provoked in storming and develop social consensus Compromise is necessary, interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and group becomes more cohesive o Performing With the social structure is sorted out, group focuses on accomplishment, achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance o Adjourning Some groups such as task forces have limited life span so disperses after achieving goals www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 10 Rites and rituals can take place (e.g. ceremonies, parties, and emotional support) - Not all groups go through all stages o E.g. well-acquainted task forces and committees can skip some stages when they have a new problem to work out - Process applies mainly to new groups who have never met before Punctuated Equilibrium - When groups have a specific deadline to complete some problem-solving tasks, the development sequence may be quite different to the one mentioned above - Punctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions - Phase 1 o Begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint 419K0J74:58 existence o The first meeting is crucial since it sets the agenda for assumptions, approaches, and precedents that members follow until the midpoint o Group gathers information and holds meetings but makes little visible progress toward the goal - Midpoint Transition o ..:78,9,O24890[,.9O9K0K,O1Z,54L39L39L2094Z,79K0J74:580,OL30 o Transition marks a change in the J74:58,5574,.K,3K4Z9K0J74:52,3,J089K0 change shows how the group is processing o May consolidate previously acquired information or a completely new approach - Phase 2 o Concludes with final meetings that reveals a burst of activity and concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product - What advice does the punctuated equilibrium model offer? o Prepare carefully for the first meeting since what is decided here will strongly determine what happens in the rest of Phase 1 o As long as people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1 o Manage the midpoint transition carefully by evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of ideas generated in Phase 1 o Be sure that you have adequate resources to execute Phase 2 o Resist deadline changes which may damage the midpoint transition Group Structures and Its Consequences - Group structure 701078949K0Z,,J74:5L85:994J09K07 - Basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and member diversity - Other characteristics are the expectations 9K,9202-078K,;0,-4:949K078-0K,;L4:7 (norms), agreement on the roles, group member status, and their cohesiveness Group Size - One thing is certain, the smallest possible group consists of two people and there is no particular limit as to the maximum number of members in a group (parliamentary size is 300-400 members and task forcescommittees usually have between 3-20 members) - Size and Satisfaction o Members of larger groups consistently report less satisfaction with group membership than those who find themselves in smaller groups www.notesolution.com
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