Textbook Notes - Chapter 9

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Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

MGTB27 01 Week 5 Chapter 9 Leadership (pg. 285 314) - Michael McCain, CEO of McCain and Maple Leaf Foods is an example of a leader who takes responsibility and tries to make it right to victims at the time of the listeriosis outbreak (did not listen to accountants and lawyers; not about money or legal liability) What is Leadership? - Reports in magazines suggest that effective powerful leaders have a rare combination of vision, skills, expertise, and toughness as well as having the ability to influence governments, public partners, and peers - Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context (e.g. enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction, and commitment from the workforce) - Strategic leadership L89K0O0,078,-LOL994,39L.L5,9e, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future 1479K047J,3L],9L43 - Strategic leaders can provide an organization with a competitive advantage by helping their organizations compete during turbulent and unpredictable environments - Any organizational member can influence others but individuals with authority or position (e.g. formal leaders: manager, supervisor) may be expected to influence others. At times, there can be ineffective formal leaders when they fail to influence others - Informal leaders do not have formal authority so they rely on being well liked or being perceived as highly skilled to exert influence Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits - Influential leaders: Henry Ford, Martin Luther King, Jr., Jack Welch - Are people born as leaders or are they groomed to become leaders? (experienceeducation) - Implicit assumption is that those who become leaders and do a good job of it possess a special set of traits that distinguish them from the masses of followers Research on Leadership Traits - The search for leadership trait began during WWI and continue through WWII when US military recognized that it had a leadership problem where there a short supply of able officers to lead such a massive war effort - Traits are personal characteristics of the individual, including physical characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality - Research has shown that traits are not associated with whether people become effective leaders or not (e.g. thinking someone will be a good leader because they posses certain characteristics that we believe are associated with leadership) - Some traits that are associated with leadership may include intelligence, energy, self- confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity and need for achievement - 079,L397,L988:.K,89K700419K0LJL;0L20nsions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience) are more closely linked to leadership emergence and effectiveness. There is a significant relationship between intelligence and leadership www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 5 Limitations of the Trait Approach - It may be difficult to determine whether the traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits - Traits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership - Leadership traits make it more likely that certain actions will be taken and will be successful - We know that dominance, intelligence, or tallness is associated with effective leadership but we are unsure what these people do to influence others successfully. As a result, we have little information on how to train and develop leaders or diagnose failures of leadership The Behaviour of Leaders - Trait approach is concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting while behaviours of leaders was concerned with what leaders do in a group - Are there particular leadership style that is more effective than other possible styles? - In the 1940s, a study done at the Ohio State University researched how employees describe their superiors along a number of behaviour dimensions and of these dimensions, two basic kinds of behaviours were reveals: consideration and initiating structure Consideration and Initiating Structure - Consideration is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees - A considerate leader is seen as friendly and democratic, expresses appreciation and support, and is protective of group welfare (e.g. CEO of Co-operators Kathy Bardswick) - Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment - A structuring leader clearly defines and organizes hisher role and the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done, and assigns employees to particular tasks - A leader can be high, low, or average on one or both dimensions The Consequences of Consideration and Structure - 438L07,9L43,3L3L9L,9L3J897:.9:70-49K.4397L-:90548L9L;0O94025O4008249L;,9L43 job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness - Consideration is more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader and job satisfaction), motivation, and leader effectiveness - Initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to job performance & group performance - Effects of consideration and initiating structure often depend on characteristics of the task, the employee, and the setting in which work is performed (nature of the leadership situation) Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours - Other things beside initiate structure or consideration can be used: - Leader reward behaviour provides employees with compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special treatment (have clear picture of what is expected of them and understand positive outcomes will occur if they achieve these expectations) - When rewards are contingent on performance, employees should perform at a high level are experience job satisfaction - Leader punishment behaviour involves the use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards (e.g. raises or promotions) - :K035:3L8K2039L83490110.9L;0O:80,3L87,342,3349.439L3J03943025O4008 behaviour, employees may react negatively with great dissatisfaction - Leader reward and punishment behaviour is very effective www.notesolution.com
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