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Chapter 13

Textbook Notes - Chapter 13

12 Pages

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Joanna Heathcote

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MGTB27 01 Week 11 Chapter 13 Conflict and Stress (pg. 424 453) What is Conflict? - Interpersonal conflict is a process that occurs when one person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another - Conflict often involves antagonistic attitudes (e.g. develop a dislike for each otherneg. stereotypes) and behaviours (e.g. name calling, sabotage, or even physical violence) - Within some organizations, conflict process is managed in a collaborative way to keep antagonism at a minimum. Sometimes conflict is hidden or suppressed and not as obvious Causes of Organizational Conflict - Factors that contribute to organizational conflict: Group Identification and Intergroup Bias - Research has been done that concludes that people tend to develop a positive view of their own L3-J74:5,3O088548L9L;0;L0Z419K04:9-J74:5ZK0709K0,70349202-078 - Intergroup bias occurs because self-esteem is a critical factor and by identifying yourself with the success of your own group and disassociating yourself from out-group failures, this boosts self-esteem and provides a feeling of social cohesion - In organizations, there are a number of groups or classes with which people identify with: o Personal characteristics: e.g. race or gender o Job function: e.g. sales or promotions o Job level: e.g. manager or non-manager - Differences in groups might be accentuated by real differences in power, opportunity etc... - Increased emphasis on teams in organizations generally places a high premium on getting employees to identify strongly with their team and organizations must pay close attention to managing relationships between these teams Interdependence - When individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their own goals, the potential for conflict exists o E.g. if sales staff does not provide production department with timely production schedules, it may make the production department look bad - Some departments are not highly interpedent (e.g. salespeople and maintenance department) - Interdependence ca set the stage for two reasons: o It is necessary for interaction between parities so if they cannot coordinate their own interests, conflict will arise o Interdependence implies that each power has some power and if they abuse their power, this will create antagonism - Interdependence does not always lead to conflict but sometimes provide a good basis for collaboration through mutual assistance Differences in Power, Status, and Culture - Conflict can erupt when parties differ significantly in power, status, or culture; o Power If dependence is not mutual but one-way (e.g. A depends on B to accomplish goals but B does not depend on A), the potential for conflict increases where antagonism may develop E.g. production workers might be highly dependent on inspectors to approve their work but this dependence is not reciprocated. Production workers may treat inspectors with hostility which is a symptom of conflict www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 11 o Status Status differences provide little potential for conflict when people of lower status are dependent on higher status since this is how organizations work For some work, those with lower status find themselves giving orders to higher- status people and the higher-status person may come to resent this reversal of usual lines of influence (e.g. servers giving orders to chefs) o Culture When two or more very different cultures develop in an organization, the clash in beliefs and values can result in obvious conflict E.g. hospital administrators develop a strong culture on efficiency and cost- effectiveness whereas physicians share a strong culture based on providing excellent patient care at any cost Ambiguity - Ambiguous goals, jurisdictions, or performance criteria can lead to conflict - May be difficult to accurately assign praise for good outcomes or blame for bad outcomes o E.g. if sales drop, design group may blame the marketing department for poor advertising campaign and the marketers may claim that the product is not good - Ambiguous performance criteria is a frequent cause of conflict between managers and employees since employees do not know what is considered adequateinadequate work o E.g. there is much ambiguity surrounding what is needed to produce a hit movie or show in the film and entertainment industry and conflict is common in this industry Scarce Resources - When resources are scarce, differences in power are magnified which may lead to conflict o E.g. limited budget money, secretarial support, or lab space - Scarcity has a way of turning latent or disguised conflict into clearknown conflict o E.g. two scientist who does not get well may be able to put up a peaceful front until there is a reduction in lab space, provokes each to protect their domain (conflict) Types of Conflict - Not all conflicts are the same which can be divided into relationship, task & process conflict - Relationship conflict is interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their 70O,9L438KL5507803499K09,8N,9K,3 0 J 507843,OL9.O,8K08 - Task conflict is disagreements about the nature of the work to be done (e.g. differences of opinion about goals or technical matters) - Process conflict is disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished (e.g. disagreements about responsibility, authority, resource allocation, who should do what) - Such conflicts prevents the development of cohesiveness in work groups or teams - Not all conflicts are harmful, when the task is non-routine, a variety of perspectives can be beneficial as long as it does not degenerate into relationship conflict Conflict Dynamics - A number of events occur when one or more of the causes of conflict takes effect (assuming conflicts between groups such as organizational departments): o :L33L3J9K0.431OL.9L88003,82470L25479,399K,30;0O45L3J,J4484O:9L43 o Parties begin to conceal information or pass distorted information to each other o Each side becomes more cohesive and strict conformity is expected o Contact with the opposite party is discouraged unless in mandatory environments o Opposite party is negatively stereotyped and own position is boosted www.notesolution.com
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