Chapter 5

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Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

Chapter 5-Motivation WHY STUDY MOTIVATION? Motivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour, and it has interested managers, researchers, teachers etc for years It has become more important in contemporary organizations due to a need for increased productivity and to be globally competitive WHAT IS MOTIVATION? The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal EFFORT- the strength of the persons work-related behaviour PERSISTENCE- strength to keep going, never rest on your laurels DIRECTION- Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization? o Motivation means working smart as well as working hard GOALS- all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing ones job are examples of intrinsic motivation EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others o Pay, fringe benefits, company policies and various forms of supervision are examples of extrinisic motivation Some motivators have features of both such as? SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY A theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled o AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION When people are motivated by intrinsic factors o CONTROLLED MOTIVATION When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward A key aspect of SDT is the extent to which ones motivation is autonomous versus controlled Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance Some research has shown that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself However the review of the research in this area reached the conclusion that the negative effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation occurs only under very limited conditions and are easily avoidable MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization GENERAL COGNITIVE ABILITY A persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources o Includes a number of cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities that are required to perform mental tasks o GCA predicts learning and training success as well as job performance EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEThe ability to understand and manage ones own feelings as well as others feelings and emotions o Individuals high on EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action o Peter Salovey and John Mayer created an EI model consisting of four interrelated sets of skills that represent sequential steps that form a hierarchy going in reverse order (1 leads to 2 leads to 3 etc) 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others An example of this would be to accurately identify emotions in peoples faces and in non-verbal behaviour 2. Using Emotion to Facilitate Thinking Ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and reasoning Also involves being able to shift ones emotions and generate new emotions that can help one to see things in different ways and from different perspectives 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions This stage involves being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time 4. Managing Emotions so as to attain specific goals Ability to manage ones own and others feelings and emotions as well as emotional relationships At this stage one is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit the situation o EI is more important in jobs with low cognitive level THE MOTIVATION-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP Must note the possibility that the performance level can be low when the motivation is high and vice versa NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION NEED THEORIES Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance 1. Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals 2. NEEDSBEHAVIOURINCENTIVES AND GOALS 3. Note that need theories are concerned with what motivate workers 4. Process theories are concerned with how various factors motivate people MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS According to Maslow, humans have five sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy 1. Physiological Needs Needs to Survive 2. Safety Needs Security, stability, freedom from anxiety and a structured and ordered environment 3. Belongingness Needs Social Interaction, Affection, Love 4. Esteem Needs Needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others 5. Self-actualization Needs Desire to devlop ones true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and express ones skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling According to Maslow. Individuals are motivated to satisfy their physiological needs before they reveal an interest in safety needs A satisfied need in no longer an effective motivator ALDERFERS ERG THEORY A three level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence need 2. Relatedness Needs satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members 3. Growth Needs No rigid hierarchy of needs, accounts for individual differences McCLELLANDS THEORY OF NEEDS A nonhierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that on acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects to ones society 1. Need for Achievement A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks A desire for performance feedback People concerned with bettering their performance 2. Need for Affiliation Strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible
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