Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization and Culture SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS The fact that people are dependent on other allowed for influence to occur INFORMATION DEPENDENCE AND EFFECT DEPENDENCE o INFORMATION DEPENDENCE Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act Individuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy The effects of social information can be very strong, often exerting as much or more influence over others as objective reality o EFFECT DEPENDENCE Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment Involves two complementary processes Group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group The member frequently desires the approval of the group SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN ACTION o MOTIVES FOR SOCIAL CONFORMITY COMPLIANCE Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment Primarily involves effect dependence Do not necessarily subscribe to the values IDENTIFICATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself The supporters of the norm are attractive to the seer and they view themselves as similar to them INTERNALIZATION Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o THE SUBTLE POWER OF COMPLIANCE A compliant individual is necessarily doing something is contrary to the way he or she thinks or feels Must cease conformity in this case especially when the required behaviour is very different from ones valuesmorals etc. They are more likely to eventually accept the norms when the behaviour in question is not so discrepant with their values ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION Socialization The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization Socialization Methods Proximal Socialization Outcomes Distal Socialization Outcomes An important objective of org. socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit PERSON-JOB FIT The match between an employees knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirement s of a job PERSON-ORG FIT The match between an employees personal values and the values of an organization One of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions of an organizations culture and for individuals to define themselves in terms of the organization and what is perceived to represent ORG IDENTIFICATION The extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION (3 STAGES) o ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION A considerable amount of socialization occurs even before a person becomes a member of a particular organization o ENCOUNTER Day to day reality of work life thereorientation programs and rotation. Boss is looking that the recruit is able to conform or has, and the recruit is looking at whether their needs can be fulfilled o ROLE MANAGEMENT after the first two steps the recruit is focused on fine tuning their and actively managing his or her role in the organization UNREALISTIC EXPECTATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT o UNREALISTIC EXPECATIONS Research indicates that people entering orgs hold many expectations that are inactive and often unrealistically high o PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization o PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH Employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract This occurs because of many reasons, one being that employers often have to promise more than what they can realistically offer when recruiting
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