chapter 19

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Management (MGM)
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

INTRODUCTION The main marketing communications applications are advertising, publicity, sales promotion, and personal selling ADVERTISING Advertising expenditures as a proportion of sales vary among industries and companies Advertisers depend on research to understand the markets that they are attempting to reach Understanding consumer behaviour has become an important aspect of advertising strategy Increased knowledge of such factors as lifestyle and personal attitudes has led to improved advertising decisions Advertising provides an efficient, inexpensive, and fast method of reaching consumers The Advertising Campaign: Integrated Marketing Communications A company that develops a marketing communications strategy often does not restrict its plan to advertising alone The elements of the communications mix are blended to provide maximum consumer impact Creating an Advertisement A major step in the advertising process is developing and preparing an advertisement o The advertisement should flow logically from this carefully excited strategy process Advertisements should accomplish the following o Gain attention and interest o Inform or persuade o Eventually lead to a buying action Stimulating buying action is difficult, since an advertisement cannot close a sale Too many advertisers fail to suggest how receivers of the message can buy the product if they so desire Categories of Advertisements Product advertising is nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service Institutional advertising is promoting a concept, idea, or philosophy, or the goodwill of an industry, company, or organization Informative Product Advertising Informative product advertising is advertising that seeks to develop demand through presenting factual information on the attributes of a product or service o Tends to be used in promoting new products o Often seen in introductory stages of the product life cycle Persuasive Product Advertising Persuasive Product Advertising is advertising that emphasizing using words or images to try to create an image for a product and to influence attitudes about it o Contains little objective information o Generally used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising Reminder-Oriented Advertising is advertising whose goal is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the product or service name in front of the public o Used in the maturity and decline phases of the product life cycle Retail Advertising Retail advertising is the advertising done by stores that sell goods or services directly to consumers o Accounts for a sizable portion of total advertising expenditure Cooperative advertising is the sharing of advertising costs between the retailer and the manufacturer o Benefits both retailer and manufacturer Retailer secures additional advertising that it would not otherwise have Manufacturers benefit from retailers sharing advertising costs Institutional Advertising Seeks to increase public knowledge of a concept, idea, philosophy, industry, or company Techniques for Delivering Advertising Messages Structure Since readers tend to skim advertising, a number of subheadings that summarize the entire message are usually an advantage o Bold headlines, colour, sound effects, loud sound during a television commercial and unusual images Use of Humour, Sex, and Fear Humour must not detract from the central message the advertiser wishes to deliver Many attempts at humour in advertising are not that funny Sexual images are not helpful to gain attention Society has become resistant to advertisers who seem to be exploiting people in their advertising As erotic content increases, the probability of people correctly recalling the associated brand decreases Advertisements sometimes appeal to peoples fear of social stigma in their ads for deodorants, breath sweeteners, and dandruff treatments Research has shown that fear appeals can be effective unless the appeal is so strong that individuals psychologically repress the message because it disturbs them too much Comparative Advertising Comparative Advertising is advertising that makes direct promotional comparisons with competitive brands o Best employed by firms that do not lead the market Many advertisers are now choosing to compare their products directly with those of competitors The comparison can sometimes take the form of an attack on the competition Marketers who contemplate using comparative advertising should ensure that they can prove their claims, because such advertising has the potential of producing lawsuits Using Celebrities to Promote the Company and Its Products Celebrity Marketing is having celebrities lend their name and influence to the promotion of a product www.notesolution.como Companies believe this is worth the cost of paying the celebrity for his or her endorsement of the product o Marketers feel that there will be a positive association between the public acceptance of the celebrity and the acceptance of their product o If the celebrity falls out of favour, the company has to try to quickly dissociate itself from that person Role Model Marketing is a marketing technique that associates a product with the positive perception of a type of individual or a role o The role model association for NAYA pure water is with 150 healthy looking lifeguards Buzz marketing is giving a significant person in a social system a product to use in the hope that others will see and want to buy the product Media Selection If you want to advertise to consumers who prefer vinyl records over CDs, the proper approach would be find an advertising medium that is more focused on that group Research should identify the target market, determine its size and characteristics, and then match the ta
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