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Management (MGM)
Bill Mc Conkey

Chapter 5 – Attitudes Based on High Effort - Attitude – a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person or action o Attitudes are learned and tey tend to persist over time - Attitudes are important because: o Cognitive Function – how attitude influence our thoughts o Affective Function – how attitudes influence our feelings o Connative Function – how attitudes influence our behaviour - Attitudes can be described in terms of five main characteristics o Favorability – the degree to which we like or dislike something o Attitude accessibility – how easily an attitude can be remembered o Attitude confidence – how strongly we hold an attitude o Attitude Persistence – how long our attitude lasts o Attitude Resistance – how difficult it is to change an attitude - Ambivalence – when our evaluations regarding a brand are mixed (both positive and negative) o When you have both positive or negative feelings towards a product, someone else’s opinion will tend to influence us more Forming and Changing Attitudes - Attitude formation are based on cognitions (thoughts) or beliefs OR - Attitudes are based on emotions o Sometimes we have a favourable attitude simply because it feels good or seems right - How much extensive thinking or elaboration put forth affects attitude formation and change processes as well - When MAO is high, consumers are more likely to devote a lot of effort toward and become quite involved in forming or changing attitudes and making decisions - Central-route processing – the attitude formation and change process when effort is high o Attitudes are based on careful and effortful analysis fo the true merits or central issues contained within the message - Peripheral-route processing – the attitude formation and change process when effort is low Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes - Direct or Imagined Experience o Elaborating on actual experience with a product or service can help consumers form positive or negative attitudes - Reasoning by Analogy or Category o Considering how similar a product is to other products or to a particular product category - Values-Driven Attitudes o Attitudes are driven or shaped based on individual values - Social Identity-Based Attitude Generation o Your own social identity can affect your attitude - Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation o Cognitive Responses – thoughts we have in response to a communication  take the form of recognitions, evaluations, associations, images or ideas  Counterarguments (CA) – thoughts that disagree with the message  “This product will never work”  Support arguments (SAs) – thoughts that agree with the message  “that sounds great”  Source Derogations (SDs) – thoughts that discount or attach the source of the message  “I think this guy is lying” o Belief Discrepancy – when a message is different from what consumers believe  Consumers come up with more counterarguments because they want to stick with their own beliefs o Expectancy-value models – a widely used model that explains how attitudes form and change  The beliefs or knowledge they have about an object or action  Their evaluation of these particular beliefs o Expectancy-value model is known as theory of reasoned action (TORA)  A model that provides an explanation of how, when and why attitudes predict behaviour  Behaviour (B) – what we do  Behavioural intention (BI) – what we intend to do  Attitude towards the act – how we feel about doing something  Subjective norms (SN) – how others feel about our doing something o Behaviour (B) is a function of a person’s behavioural intention (B) which in turn is determined by 1. The person’s attitude toward the act (Aact) and the subjective norms o Normative Influences – how other people influence our behaviour through social pressure o Theory of Planned Behaviour – An extension of the TORA model that predicts behaviours over which consumers perceive they have control - How marketers can change attitudes, intentions, and behaviour through the following strategies: o Change Beliefs  Strengthen beliefs that the offering has positive, important consequences  Lessen the belief that has negative consequences o Change Evaluations  Change consumer’s evaluations of the consequences  Attitudes are more positive when their beliefs are more positive o Add a new belief  Particularly effective when a brand has existing features that are considered inferior, quality perceived to be lower, or a higher price than that of its competitors o Encourage attitude formation based on imagined experience  Vivid language, detailed pictures or instructions to encourage consumers to imagine an experience o Target normative beliefs  Develop communication that specifically target strong normative beleifs How cognitively based attitudes
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