Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
MGTA01H3 (583)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGT)
Chris Bovaird

Chapter 1 Understanding the Canadian Business System Notes The Concept of Business and Profit N business : an organization that seeks to earn profits by providing goods and services N profit : the money that remains (if any) after a business’s expenses are subtracted from its revenues N expenses : money business spends producing its goods and services and generally running the business; also referred to as costs N revenues : money business earns selling its products and services; also referred to as “sales” N in Canada’s economic system, businesses exist to earn profits for owners who are free to set them up N in choosing how to pursue profits, businesses must take into account what consumers want or need N if enterprising business people can identify either unmet needs or better ways of satisfying them, they can be successful N opportunity always involves goods or services that consumers want or need—especially if no one else is supplying them or if existing businesses are doing so inefficiently or incompletely Economic Systems around the World N economic system : the way in which a nation allocates its resources among its citizens N economic systems differ in terms of who owns and controls these resources, known as the “factors of production” Factors of Production N factors of production : the resources used to produce goods and services: labour, capital, entrepreneurs, and natural resources N information resources are now often included as a fifth factor of production as well Labour N labour : the mental and physical training and talents of people; sometimes called human resources N employees who are well trained and knowledgeable can be a real competitive advantage for a company Capital N capital : the funds needed to operate an enterprise N a major source of capital for small businesses is personal investment by owners, which can come from individual entrepreneurs, from partners who start businesses together, or from investors who buy stock N revenue from the sale of products is a key and ongoing source of capital once a business has opened its doors Entrepreneurs N entrepreneur : an individual who organizes and manages labour, capital, and natural resources to produce goods and services to earn a profit, but who also runs the risk of failure Natural Resources N natural resources : items used in the production of GS in their natural state, including land, water, mineral deposits, and trees Information Resources N information resources : information such as market forecasts, economic data, and specialized knowledge of employees that is useful to a business and that helps it achieve its goals N much of what a business does results in either the creation of new information or the repackaging of existing information for new users and different audiences Types of Economic Systems N command economy : ES in which gov’t controls all or most factors of production and makes all or most production decisions N market economy : ES in which individuals control all or most factors of production and make all or most production decisions Command Economies N communism : a type of command economy in which the government owns and operates all industries N socialism : a kind of command economy in which the government owns and operates the main industries, while individuals own and operate less crucial industries Market Economies N market : a mechanism for exchange between the buyers and sellers of a particular good or service N capitalism : kind of market economy offering private ownership of factors of production and of profits from business activity Mixed Market Economies N mixed market economy : ES with elements of both CE and ME, in practice, typical of most nations’ economies N there are two trends taking placing in such ES: privatization and deregulation N privatization : the transfer of activities from the government to the public sector N deregulation : a reduction in the number of laws affecting business activity N deregulation frees companies to do what they want without government intervention, thereby simplifying task of management Interactions between Business and Government How Government Influences Business Government as Customer N government buys 1000s of different PS from business firms, including office supplies, office buildings, computers, battleships, helicopters, highways, water treatment plants, management and engineering consulting services, and advertising N many businesses depend on government purchasing, if not for their survival, at least for a certain level of prosperity N government expenditures on GS amount to billions of dollars each year Government as Competitor N gov’t competes with business through Crown corporations, which are accountable to minister of parliament for their conduct www.notesolution.com Government as Regulator N federal and provincial governments in Canada regulate many aspects of business activity N government regulates business through many administrative boards, tribunals, or commissions N provincial boards and commissions also regulate business through their decisions N business activity is regulated for many important reasons including protecting competition, protecting consumers, achieving social goals, and protecting the environment Government as Taxation Agent N revenue taxes : taxes whose main purpose is to fund government services and programs N progressive revenue taxes : taxes levied at higher rate on higher-income taxpayers and at lower rate on lower-income taxpayers N regressive revenue taxes : taxes that cause poorer people to pay a higher percentage of income than richer people pay N restrictive taxes : taxies levied to control certain activities that legislators believe should be controlled Government as Provider of Incentives N federal, provincial, and municipal governments offer incentive programs that help stimulate economic development N governments also offer incentives through the many services they provide to business firms through government organizations N there are many other government incentive programs, including municipal tax rebates for companies that locate in certain areas, design assistance programs, and remissions of tariffs on certain advanced technology production equipment N government incentive programs may or may not have the desired effect of stimulating the economy and they may also cause difficulties with our trading partners Government as Provider of Essential Services
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