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Chapter 3

MGTA04 Chapter 3

7 Pages

Management (MGT)
Course Code
Chris Bovaird

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Chapter 3 – Managing Information Systems and Communication Technology Information Manager – The manager responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze, and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions. Information Management – An internal operation that arranges the firm’s information resources to support business performance outcomes. Data – Raw facts and figures. Information – A meaningful, useful interpretation of data. Information System (IS) – An organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making. – Solve technical problems, analyze management problems, especially for control purposes – applying quality-control standards to production, comparing costs against budgeted amounts, keeping records on employee absences and turnover. Electronic Business and Communications Technology Electronic Information Technology (EIT) – IS applications based on telecommunications technologies. – Fax Machine – A machine that can quickly transmit a copy of documents or graphics over telephone lines. – Voice Mail – A computer-based system for receiving and delivering income telephone calls. – Electronic Mail (Email) System – Electronic transmission of letters, reports, and other information between computers. – Electronic Conferencing – Allows people to communicate simultaneously from different locations via telephone, video, or email group software. – Groupware – A system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PCs. Data Communication Networks Data Communication Networks – Global networks that permit users to send electronic messages quickly and economically. – The Internet – A gigantic network of networks that serves millions of computers, offers information on business, science, and government, and provides communication flows among more than 170,000 separate networks around the world. – Internet Service Provider (ISP) – A commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to servers. – The World Wide Web – A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information on the internet. – Uniform Resource Locator (URL) – Home Page – A screen display that welcome the visitor with a greeting that may include graphics, sound, and visual enhancements introducing the user to the site. – Webmaster – The person responsible for maintaining an organization’s website. – Web Servers – Dedicated work stations – large computers – that are customize for managing, maintaining, and supporting websites – Browser – Software that enables a user to access information on the web. – Directories – Features the help people find the content they want on the web. The user types in key words and the directory retrieves a list of websites with titles containing those words. – Search Engine – Software for searching web pages that does not pre-classify them into a directory. – Intranet – A company’s private network that is accessible only to employees via entry through electronic firewalls. – Firewall – Hardware and software security systems that ensure that internal computer systems are not accessible to outsiders. – Extranet – A network that allows outsiders limited access to a firm’s internal information system. New Options for Organizational Design: The Networked Enterprise Leaner Organizations – Fewer employers. – Simpler organizational structures. – Reductions in middle-management positions. – Shrinkage of layers in organization structure – Electronic information networks are replacing operating managers who formerly communicated company policies, procedures, or work instructions to lower-level employees. More Flexible Operations – Offer customers greater variety and faster delivery cycles. – Mass-Customization – Producing large volumes of products or services, but giving customers the choice of features and options they want. Increased Collaboration – Marketing, finance, production, engineering, and purchasing can share their different stories of information and determine a best overall design. – Networking and the Virtual Company – Lets collaborators exchange ideas, plan strategy, share customer information, and otherwise coordinate efforts, even if their respective facilities are far apart. Greater Independence of Company and Workplace – Geographic separation of the workplace. – Company’s activities may be geographically scattered. – “E-Business” Improved Management Processes – Instantaneous information is accessible in a convenient and usable format. – Managers use it routinely for planning, creating, leading, directing, and controlling operations. – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) – Large information systems for integrating all the activities of a company’s business units. Types of Information Systems – A complex of several information systems that share information while serving different levels of the organization, different departments, or different operations. User Groups of System Requirements Knowledge Workers – Employees whose jobs involve the use of information and knowledge as the raw materials. System User/Level Kind of Information System – Top-Level Managers Strategic Information System – Mid-Level Managers Management Information System – Knowledge Workers Knowledge Information System – First-Level Managers Operational Information System Major Systems by Level 1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) – Applications of information processing for basic day-to-day business transactions. 2. System for Knowledge Workers and Office Applications – IS
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