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MGTA02H3 (361)
H Laurence (23)

Summary of Terms CH 11-16 (2)

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Management (MGT)
H Laurence

CHAPTER 11 service operations: Production activities that yield tangible and intangible service products. goods production: Production activities that yield tangible products. utility: The power of a product to satisfy a human want; something of value. time utility: That quality of a product satisfying a human want because of the time at which it is made available. place utility: That quality of a product satisfying a human want because of where it is made available. ownership (possession) utility: That quality of a product satisfying a human want during its consumption or use. form utility: That quality of a product satisfying a human want because of its form; requires raw materials to be transformed into a finished product. operations (production) management: The systematic direction and control of the processes that transform resources into finished goods. production managers: Managers responsible for ensuring that operations processes create value and provide benefits. operations process: A set of methods and technologies used in the production of a good or a service. analytic process: Any production process in which resources are broken down. synthetic process: Any production process in which resources are combined. high-contact system: A system in which the service cannot be provided without the customer being physically in the system (e.g., transit systems). low-contact system: A system in which the service can be provided without the customer being physically in the system (e.g., lawn care services). forecast: Estimates of future demand for both new and existing products. capacity: The amount of a good that a firm can produce under normal working conditions. process layout: A way of organizing production activities such that equipment and people are grouped together according to their function. cellular layout: Used to produce goods when families of products can follow similar flow paths. product layout: A way of organizing production activities such that equipment and people are set up to produce only one type of good. assembly line: A type of product layout in which a partially finished product moves through a plant on a conveyor belt or other equipment. U-shaped production line: Production layout in which machines are placed in a narrow U shape rather than a straight line. flexible manufacturing system (FMS): A production system that allows a single factory to produce small batches of different goods on the same production line. service flow analysis: An analysis that shows the process flows that are necessary to provide a service to customers; it allows managers to determine which processes are necessary. master production schedule: Schedule showing which products will be produced, when production will take place, and what resources will be used. Gantt chart: Production schedule diagramming the steps in a project and specifying the time required for each. PERT chart: Production schedule specifying the sequence and critical path for performing the steps in a project. operations control: Managers monitor production performance by comparing results with plans and schedules. follow-up: Checking to ensure that production decisions are being implemented. materials management: Planning, organizing, and controlling the flow of materials from purchase through distribution of finished goods. standardization: Using standard and uniform components in the production process. transportation: The means of transporting resources to the company and finished goods to buyers. warehousing: The storage of both incoming materials for production and finished goods for physical distribution to customers. inventory control: In materials management, receiving, storing, handling, and counting of all raw materials, partly finished goods, and finished goods. purchasing: The acquisition of all the raw materials and services that a company needs to produce its products. holding costs: Costs of keeping extra supplies or inventory on hand. www.notesolution.comlead times: In purchasing control, the gap between the customers placement of an order and the sellers shipment of merchandise. supplier selection: Finding and determining suppliers to buy from. just-in-time (JIT) production systems: A method of inventory control in which materials are acquired and put into production just as they are needed. material requirements planning (MRP): A method of inventory control in which a computerized bill of materials is used to estimate production needs so that resources are acquired and put into production only as needed. bill of materials: Production control tool that specifies the necessary ingredients of a product, the order in which they should be combined, and how many of each are needed to make one batch. manufacturing resource planning (MRP II): An advanced version of MRP that ties together all parts of the organization into the companys production activities. quality control: The management of the production process so as to manufacture goods or supply services that meet specific quality standards. CHAPTER 12 productivity: A measure of efficiency that compares how much is produced with the resources used to produce it. quality: A products fitness for use in terms of offering the features that consumers want. labour productivity: Partial productivity ratio calculated by dividing gross domestic product by total number of workers. level of productivity: The dollar value of goods and services produced by each worker. total quality management (TQM): A concept that emphasizes that no defects are tolerable and that all employees are responsible for maintaining quality standards. performance quality: The overall degree of quality; how well the features of a product meet consumers needs and how well the product performs. quality reliability: The consistency of quality from unit to unit of a product. quality ownership: The concept that quality belongs to each employee who creates or destroys it in producing a good or service; the idea that all workers must take responsibility for producing a quality product. competitive product analysis: Process by which a company analyzes a competitors products to identify desirable improvements. value-added analysis: The evaluation of all work activities, material flows, and paperwork to determine the value they add for customers. statistical process control (SPC): Statistical analysis techniques that allow managers to analyze variations in production data and to detect when adjustments are needed to create products with high quality reliability. process variation: Any change in employees, materials, work methods, or equipment that affects output quality. control chart: A statistical process control method in which results of test sampling of a product are plotted on a diagram that reveals when the process is beginning to depart from normal operating conditions. qualitycost study: A method of improving product quality by assessing a firms current quality-related costs and identifying areas with the greatest cost-saving potential. internal failures: Expenses incurred during production and before bad product leaves the plant. external failures: Allowing defective products to leave the factory and get into consumers hands. quality improvement (QI) team: TQM tool in which groups of employees work together to improve quality. benchmarking: Comparing the quality of the firms output with the quality of the output of the industrys leaders. ISO 14000: Certification program attesting to the fact that a factory, laboratory, or office has improved environmental performance. ISO 9000: Program certifying that a factory, laboratory, or office has met the quality management standards of the International Organization for Standardization. business process re-engineering: Redesigning of business processes to improve performance, quality, and productivity. supply chain: Flow of information, materials, and services that starts with raw-materials suppliers and continues through other stages in the operations process until the product reaches the end customer. supply chain management (SCM): Principle of looking at the chain as a whole to improve the overall flow through the system. www.notesolution.com
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