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Chapter 3

Chapter 3- Managing Information Systems and Communication Technology.docx

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Management (MGT)

Chapter 3: Managing Information Systems and Communication Technology INFORMATION MANAGEMENT -every major firms business activities are linked to information systems -the management of information system is a core business activity -information managers: the manager responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze, and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions -information management: an internal operation that arranges the firms information resources to support business performance and outcomes -managers must often sift through a bunch of reports, memos, etc Data Versus Information -data: raw facts and figures -information: a meaningful, useful interpretation of data -the challenge for business is to turn a flood of data into information and to manage that information to their best advantage Information Systems -information system (IS): an organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making -IS managers determine which information is needed, must gather the data, and apply the technology to convert data into information -IS managers must control the flow of information so that it goes only to those who need it -at all levels, informational quality depends on an organizations technological resources and on the people who manage them NEW BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INFORMATION AGE -employees from all levels use information systems to improve performance -IS assists in scheduling day-to-day vehicle trips, evaluating prospective employees, and formulating the firms business strategy -technology has inspired new organizational designs, innovative relationships with other organizations, and new management process for improved competitiveness The Expanding Scope of Information Systems -the relationship between information systems and organizations is among the fastest-changing aspects of business today -IS systems are used to solve technical problems, but also to analyze management problems especially for control purposesapplying quality-control standards to production, comparing costs against budgeted amounts, keeping records on employee absences and turnover -are also crucial in planning -IS systems are used to decide on a firms products and markets for the next 5 to 10 years -another basic change in organizations is an increased interdependence between a companys business strategy and its IS -to support a strategy, the systems software, hardware, and other components must be integrated Electronic Business and Communications Technologies -the pressure to maintain better communications and IS systems are increasing as competition intensifies and as organizations expand into global and ebusiness operations -new electronic IT and more advanced data communication networks are meeting the needs of such companies Electronic Information Technologies -electronic information technologies (EIT): are IS applications based on telecommunications technologies -use networks of appliances or devices (cellular phones, computers) to communicate information by electronic means -enhance the performance and productivity of general business activities by performing two functions: 1) providing coordination and communication within the firm 2) speeding up transactions with other firms -there are six most widely used innovations in todays digital business system, which are: -fax machine: a machine that can quickly transmit a copy of documents or graphics over telephone lines -popular due to speed and low cost -voice mail: a computer-based system for receiving and delivering incoming telephone calls -electronic mail (email system): electronic transmission of letters, reports, and other information between computers -electronic conferencing: allows people to communicate simultaneously from different locations via telephone, video or email group software -one from of electronic conferencing is data conferencing, which allows people in remote locations to work simultaneously on the same document -another form of electronic conferencing is videoconferencing, which allows participants to see one another on a video screen while the teleconference is in progress -groupware: a system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PCs -software that connects members of the group for email distribution, message storing, appointments, etc -information from outside a company can be linked to its electronic network, and the information can be made available at every workstation-commercial digital information services provide online information for both special-purpose and general topics Data Communication Networks -data communication networks: global networks that permit users to send electronic messages quickly and economically -carry streams of digital data back and forth -the most prominent network is the internet and the World Wide Web The Internet -internet: a gigantic network of networks that serves millions of computers, offers information on business, science, and government, and provides communication flows among more than 170,000 networks around the world -efficient tool for information retrieval that makes available an immense wealth of academic, technical, and business information -transmits information quickly and at a low cost, therefore the internet has become the most important email system -internet service provider (ISP): a commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to subscribers The World Wide Web -World Wide Web: a system with universally accepted standar
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