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Chapter 4


Management (MGH)
Course Code
Samantha Montes

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Ch. 4: Work, Attitudes & Work
Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
oPreference values have to do w/ what we consider good and bad
oBroad tendency values are very general & dont predict beh well in specific
oValues classified into: intellectual, economic, aesthetic, social, political &
oHigh productivity economic value; Full employment/enlightened supervision  
social values
oWe learn values through reinforcement processes
Occupational Differences in Values
Ex) Profs value equal opportunity for all more highly
Good person-organization fit promotes employee satisfaction & commitment
Ppl choose occupations that correspond to their values—since values are stable & acquired
early in life
Values across Cultures
Failed business negotiations is attributable to lack of understanding of cross-cultural
Opportunities for globally adept org:
oWork Centrality
Extent to which people perceived work as a central life interest differs
Those w/ more central life interest tended to work more hrs
Malak Patel1
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Variation in vacation time across cultures
oHofstedes Study
4 dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures:
1.Power Distance: the extent to which society members accept an unequal
distri of power
Small power distance cultures inequality is minimized, superiors
are accessible, power difference down played
Large power distance cultures inequality accepted as natural,
power difference are highlighted & superiors are inaccessible
Canada & US low power distance
2.Uncertainty Avoidance: the extent to which ppl are uncomfortable w/
uncertain & ambiguous situations
Strong UA cultures stress rules, regulations, hard work, conformity
& security
Weak UA culture less concerned w/ rules, regulations, conformity,
Risk-taking is valued
Canada & US weak uncertainty avoidance
More masculine cultures differentiate gender roles, stress economic
More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress quality
of life, sexual equality
Canada mid-pack; US masculine 
Shows how assertive ppl are & how much they value gender
equalityMalak Patel2
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4. Individualism/Collectivism
Individualistic societies stress independence, indi initiative &
Collective cultures favour interdependence & loyalty to
US & Canada most individualistic societies
Shows how much collective distri of resources is stressed & grp or
org loyalty
5.EXTRA: Long Term/Short-Term Orientation
Long term orientation stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, status
Short term orientation stress personal steadiness, stability & social
Canada & US short-term oriented
Long term orientation explains East Asian entrepreneurship
Relationships b/w power distance & individualism
o Individualism downplay power differences
o collectivism accentuate power differences
Implications of Cultural Variation
Exporting OB theories
oOB theories from NA might NOT translate well to other societies
oFit b/w company practices & the host culture is important
oex) Walt Disney Comp found its HR practices fit well w/ Japanese culture, not
Malak Patel3
| Chapter 4
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