Chapter_1

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Published on 15 May 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Management (MGH)
Course
MGHB02H3
Chapter 1 Organizational Behaviour and Management
What are organization?
Organizations-social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group efforts
Social Inventions
OB is essentially composed of people (present opportunities and challenges)
OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishment
all organizations have SURVIVAL as a goal, but also specific goals for each company
OB is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change
People must take part and behave in a certain way for survival and adaptation
1.Be motivated to join and remain in the organization
2.Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service
3.Willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills
4.Be flexible and innovative (provides adaptation to change)
Group Effort
Organization is based on group effort
depend on interaction and coordination w/ people to accomplish goal
1.most work are performed by groups, temp or permanent
2.informal groupingfriendships, informal alliances (OB is how to get ppl to
practise effective teamwork)
What is Organizational Behaviour?
OB refers to attitudes and behaviour of individual and groups in organizations (about
people and human nature)
Goals of Organizational Behaviour
1
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Predicting Explaining Managing
Predicting Organizational Behaviour
Predicting OB doesnt guarantee we can explain the reason for the behaviour and develop
and effective strategy to manage it
Explaining Organizational Behaviour
Explain events in organization (follows after accurate prediction)difficult b/c 1
particular behaviour has many causes, and causes can change over time. (interested in
determining why people are more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign )
Managing Organizational Behaviour
Management- the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others
If behaviours can be predicted and explained, they can be managed (controlled)
Predicting & explaining=analysis; managing= action
Classical View of Bureaucracy
Classical viewpoint-advocate high specialization of labour, intensive coordination,
and centralized decision making
To maintain control, CV suggest managers to have fewer workers in order to closely
supervise
Scientific Management-advocate the use of research to determine the optimum
degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
1.Advocated for develop written instructions defining work procedures
2.Standardize workers’ movements and break for max efficiency
Bureaucracy- ideal type of organization which would standardize behaviour and provide
security and a sense of purpose
1.a strict chain of command (each member reports to 1 superior)
2.selection and promotion based on competence instead of nepotism or favourism
3. detailed rules and procedures, so job gets done no matter who does it
4.high specialization
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5.centralized power at the top of organization
Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy
Hawthorne studies-research illustrated how psychological and social processes affect
productivity and work adjustment (interested with impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and
lighting on productivity)
Human relations movement-advocated more people-oriented styles of managements
that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employeesadvocate for
open communication, more employee participation in decision making, less
rigid, more decentralized forms of control
Critiques to bureaucracy
1.Specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement-lead
to employee alienation from organization and clients
2.Strong central power fails to take advantage of creative ideas and knowledge of
lower-level members, who are closer to the customersorganization fail to learn
from mistakes, no innovation and adaptation
3.Strict rules lead members to adopt the min. acceptable level of performanceif
rules state employees must process eight claims a day, eight would become the
norm, even though more is possible
4.Specialization causes employees to lose sight of overall goals of organization
Contemporary Management Contingency Approach
Contingency approach-there is no best way to manage, appropriate management style
depends on the demands of the situation
Managerial Roles-Mintzberg:
Interpersonal Roles
Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationship
1.Figurehead role-manager servers as a symbol for organization rather than active
decision maker (eg. Making speech to trade group, entertain clients, sign legal
documents)
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Document Summary

Organizations-social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group efforts. Social inventions: ob is essentially composed of people (present opportunities and challenges, ob is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. Group effort: organization is based on group effort depend on interaction and coordination w/ people to accomplish goal, most work are performed by groups, temp or permanent. 2. informal groupingfriendships, informal alliances (ob is how to get ppl to practise effective teamwork) What is organizational behaviour: ob refers to attitudes and behaviour of individual and groups in organizations (about people and human nature) If behaviours can be predicted and explained, they can be managed (controlled: predicting & explaining=analysis; managing= action, classical view of bureaucracy, classical viewpoint-advocate high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. 3. detailed rules and procedures, so job gets done no matter who does it: high specialization.